MEMORY IN EVERYDAY LIFE - EWT

MEMORY IN EVERYDAY LIFE - EWT

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  • Created on: 22-05-11 15:53

MEMORY IN EVERYDAY LIFE - EWT

HOW DID LOFTUS SHOW THE EFFECTS OF MISLEADING INFORMATION ON EWT?

WHAT DID SHE CONCLUDE?

WHAT WAS THE ARGUMENT AGANIST HER CONCLUSION - HOW DID SHE TEST THIS?

WHAT DID SHE FIND?

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MEMORY IN EVERYDAY LIFE - EWT

2 conditions - 1. control group (asked questions consistent with crash) - 2. Experimental group (ques included misleading information

some given misleading information absorbed this with original memory of event

argued conclusion was a result of demand characteristics - to test this Loftus offered a reward for correct recall

70% participants still made errors

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MEMORY IN EVERYDAY LIFE - EWT

WHAT IS ANOTHER FACTOR THAT AFFECTS ACCURACY OF EWT?

HOW DID LIST TEST THIS?

WHAT DID SHE FIND?

HOW HAS ANXIETY BEEN SHOWN TO AFFECT EWT?

HOW HAS ANXIETY BEEN SHOWN TO NOT AFFECT EWT?

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MEMORY IN EVERYDAY LIFE - EWT

Schema effect accuracy - people fill in gaps in their memory with perceptions

Drew up lists of elements might occur during shoplifiting senario - asked people to rate elements depending on high likely they occured - produced video using high and low probability events - showed video to new participants - recall week later

More likely to recall higher probability events - some reported seeing high prob events even though they weren't included in the video

Loftus and Burns - showed violent footage - significant impaired recall for events leading up to incident / Loftus - the weapon effect - anxiety produced by weapons takes the focus way from the man involved

Christian and Hubinette - real incidents people subect to most anxiety showed more accurate and detailed recall

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MEMORY IN EVERYDAY LIFE - EWT

HOW DID POOLE AND LINDSAY SHOW THE AGE OF THE WITNESS AFFECTED EWT?

WHAT DID THEY FIND?

WHAT DID FOSTER TRY TO INVESTIGATE? (cosequentiality)

WHAT DID HE FIND?

PEOPLE WHO ARE MORE LIKELY TO ACCEPT MISINFORMATION SHARE WHAT FOLLOWING CHARACTERISTICS?

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MEMORY IN EVERYDAY LIFE - EWT

Engaged children 3-8 in science demonstaration - parents read story cotaining elements of science experiment and new information - children questioned about demonstration

children incorperated new information into original memory - when told to think carefully older children revised new information

Whether witnesses would be more accurate if the believed evidece would influence a conviction

Participants more accurate in condition where they fought testimony would have real cosequences

Generally poorer recall - score high on measure of imagery vividness - score high on measures of empathy

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MEMORY IN EVERYDAY LIFE - EWT

WHAT HAS BEEN DEVISED TO IMPROVE ACCURACY OF EWT?

WHAT ARE THE 4 PRINCIPLES DESIGNED TO ENHANCE RECALL

WHAT ELSE DID FISHER RECOMEND THE INTERVIEWER SHOULD DO

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MEMORY IN EVERYDAY LIFE - EWT

The cognitive interview technique, devised by Geiselman et al

1. Context reinstatment - recall the scene, weather, what you were thinking, preceding events

2. report everything - report every detail recalled even if it seems trival

3. Recall from changed Perspectives - recall episodes in different temporal orders

4. Recall in reverse order - describe episode as it would have been seen from differnt angles

Fisher et al also recomended interviewer should minimise distractions, activaly listem to witnesses, ask open ended questions, pause after ecah response, avoid iteruption, encourage use of imagery, adapt language, avoid judgmental comments.

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