Memory In Everyday Life

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  • Created by: Ambrosia
  • Created on: 09-01-13 13:22

Eyewitness Testimony-Factors that influence Accura

Anxiety

Deffenbacher- high anxiety = low accuracy in EWT

Christianson and Hubinette- High anxiety = higher accuracy in EWT

Loftus-presence of a weapon causes anxiety = lowered accuracy

EVALUATION

Yerkes-Dodson Law

Loftus et al tracked eye movements to support weapon focus effect

Rinolio et al titanic

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Eyewitness Testimony-Factors that influence Accura

Age of Witness

Parker and Carranza-children make more errors 

Yarmey-younger participants more confident but not more accurate than older

Memon et al-effects of delay on older decrease accuracy if long delay

EVALUATION

own age bias-Anastasi and rhodes

Alcohol impairs attention 

(possible link to MSM)

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Eyewitness Testimony-Cognitive Interview

Fisher and Gieslman

  • Report everything
  • Context Reinstatement
  • Recall in reverse order
  • Recall from Changed perspective

EVALUATION

Milne and Bull-context reinstatement and report everything gave best recall

Hard to evaluate as forces use different aspects of the CI

Time consuming

enhanced CI puts increased demands on the interviewer

Kohnken et al meta analysis showed 34% increase in correct recall

Brazil CI works better than SI

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Eyewitness Testimony-Misleading Information

Loftus and Palmer experiement one

  • Different groups given different verbs to describe the crash. The verb given affected the estimate of car speed (smashed = highest contaced = lowest
  • misleading info led to innaccurate recall
  • experiment 2
  • Participants given different verbs again and one week later were asked about broken glass
  • misleading info changes info storage

EVALUATION

Loftus et al Stop/Yield sign-those who had consistent question= better recall

challenged by others who repeated stop/yield sign research misleading info affects retrieval

Yuille and Cutshall accurate recall despite misleading info (armed robbery, 4 months + misleading questions

Older have difficulty remembering the source of their info and therefore easier to mislead

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