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  • Created on: 05-04-13 20:57

Multi-Store Model Outline

Atkinson and Shiffrin                                Stimulus

Sensory Memory


Retrieval Short Term Memory Rehearsal

Rehearsal Retrieval

Long Term Memory

Support for Baddely's Encoding study
Too Simplistic
Strong support for the distincltion between STM and LTM through studies on brain damaged patients
Assumed that STM=Acoustic and LTM=Semantic, so how does it change? (No evidence to support how it changes)

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Short Term Memory
Miller's study

Immediate memory can hold 7+/--2 items.
Can be increased by chunking! 

  • Repeatable
  • Good For experiments
  • Chunking relies on LTM
  • Not realistic on his tests

Long Term Memory

HUGE capacity which has no limit!!


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Short Term Memory
Peterson and Peterson
Trigram retention test was completed, whilst increasing the amount of time until recall.

  • Repeatable
  • Artificial Stimuli
  • Confusion would occur after so many trigrams

Long Term Memory
He asked people to remember class mates from high school based on a photo, name or free recall.

  • High Ecological Validity (Could happen everyday)
  • Could have been rehearsed/remembered before taken study
  • Small sample to age group ratio
  • Cant generalise findings 
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Short Term Memory and Long Term Memory
He tested words of acoustic value against words or semantic value.

Acoustically similar = Low rememberence in short term, High rememberence in long term.

Acoustically different = High rememberence in both long and short term memory.

Semantically similar = High rememberence in the short term, low rememberence in long term.

Semantically different = High rememberence in both long and short term memory.

  • Didnt consider the visuals


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Working Memory Model

Central Executive
Rehearsal Rehearsal

Phonological Loop Visuo-spatial sketchpad 
Eposodic Buffer

Long Term Memory

Central Executive
-Cant do lots of things at once
-Directs its attention to tasks, and allocates it resources to each task. The resources are the three slave systems.

Episodic Buffer
-A general store.
-It intergrates information from all of the stores above. 

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Working Memory Model

Phonological Loop
-Sound information
-It also preserves the order of information.
-Small Capacity 
Baddely's Word Length Effect shows that the phonological loop exists!
~Short words are remembered more easily as the phonological loop has a small capacity. 

Visuo-spatial Sketchpad
-What things look like
-Spatial information and the relationship between things
Kosslyn and Shwartz presents participants with an image of a boat. They were asked questions as to where items were on the boat. The time taken to answer corresponed to where the item was on the boat. (ie. at the front - a short time, at the back - longer time)


  • Supporting evidence X What is the central executive?
  • More detailed STM X Cant generalise findings
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Eye Witness Testimony

Rationalisation -- New material added
Ommissons -- Information left out which wasnt understood well
Change of order -- Changed to make more sense
Schema -- What you expect to see/happen.


Participants spoke to nurse and experimenter for the same length of time, nurse gave a jab.
A week later they were asked to identify the nurse and experiementer. The experimenter was identified more often.

(Field experiement, opportunity sample) 

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Age Affecting Accuracy

Children's Accuracy
Parker and Carranza, They compared 5-11 year olds to 16+ year olds in their accuracy.
They found that 5-11 identified more people and had a high error rate.
This is possibly due to fear of not giving and answer and habit of having to give an answer.

Age differences in acccuracy
Yarmey. She stopped 650 adults in the street and asked to describe the person they had just spoken to.
The middle aged and young groups were more confident, however there were no accuracy differences.

Own aged bias 
Anastasi and Rhodes took 3 age groups and asked them to rate 24 pictures of people on how attractive they were. Then had a short activity. The participants then had to pick the previous 24 photographs out of 48 photographs.
Young and Middle aged were more accurate. They were all better at identifying someone their own age. 

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Mis-Leading Information
She showed 150 people a film of a car accident. Participants were split into two groups. G1- had Q's to do with film. G2 - had an extra Q with false information.
A week Later everyone was asked the question with the false infromation, G1- 2.7% agreed, G2 - 17.3% agreed.

  • Demand characteristics

Leading information 
45 participants were treated as witnesses to a car crash. They were asked to estimate speed. The verb describing the car changed.(smashed, crashed, bumped) Each word created a different speed estimate.
A week later they were asked if there was broken glass, the people with the higher speed estimate mostly said yes. This is an example of schema!

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The Cognitive Interview

1- Change of Order
2- Chane of Perspective
3- Mental reinstatement of Context
4- Report Everything

Fisher tested theory and 45% more detail was shown
Takes alot of time to train people to use this technique effectively
Takes alot of time to go through all of the details

Memory Improvement
-Chunking -Imagery -Acronyms -Rhymes
Studies in lab so lacks ecological validity

Method of Loci - Picturing items
Dependent on being able to visualise
Not suitable for everyone
Lots of support for being successful 


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