The Multi-Store Model.
This model was put forward by Atkinson and Shiffrin, as a proposal for the structure of memory. it is made up of three stages. the first stage is called The Sensory model. this is what incoming stimuli first reaches, but it can only be registered for brief moments of time. if not rehearsed, then the information can be lost due to decay or displacement. if it is rehearsed, then it goes onto the next stage. This is called The Short-term Memory. The Memory at this part of the model has to be rehearsed either visually or acoustically. If not, then again the information is lost. information can only be stored here for around 30seconds, as it is fragile. The last stage is Long Term Memory, after rehearsal at the STMstage, information should enter here. It is mainly semantic, and information stays at this stage for an unlimited period.
An Evaluation of the Multi-store Model.
The Multi-store Model is a good way of distinguishing between Short-term and Long-term memory. (in terms of capacity, encoding and duration.)
Also, to back up Atkinson and Shiffrins theory, further evidence for the seperate stores of memory comes from Laborartory experiments. (investigating into Primary and Recency)
BUT!.. although much research has been done, it is been critisized for being too simplistic and inflexible to explain the whole memory system. It fails to account for other factors such as memory strategies and the fact that some things are just simply easier to remember.
Also criticized for just focusing on the structure, rather than the process. From research, it shows that the flow of info through the system is interactive rather than as strictly sequential as suggested.
Evidence to support The Multi-Store Model
A LABRATORY EXPERIMENT- Glanzer and Cunitz (1966)
Pps were given a list of words, one at a time, and then asked to recall the words. (in any order, free recall) they were divided into two groups. immediate recall group, which basically meant they would recall the words immediately after being presented with them, and delayed recall group, where Pps had to count backwords for 30 seconds before recalling them.
The immediate group remembered the first and last words best and the delayed remebered the first words best, but overall both had difficulty remembering the middle section.
The groups remebered the begining of the words because they became stored in the LTM, words at the end were stored in the STM. when the second group had a distraction, they were unable to remember the words at the end because they were not rehearsed into the LTM. This supports the theory that there are different stores in the memory system.