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Baddeley-Encoding in LTM


  • Pts presented with 4 word lists
  • List A-Acoustically similar
  • List B-Acoustically dissimilar
  • List C-Semantically similar
  • List D-Semantically dissimilar
  • 20 minute retention interval in which pts had to condict another task
  • Ensured recall would involve LTM


  • Pts given List C performed worst-55% recall
  • Other lists 70-85% recall


  • Since list C was least efficiently recalled it appears there is semantic confusion in LTM
  • LTM tends to be encoded on a semantic basis
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Baddeley-Encoding in LTM


  • Makes cognitive sense in everyday life
  • For example if you try to remember a TV program you watched a while ago, you'll find the overall  content but not the words


  • Different types of LTM
  • Riding a bike is procedural memory
  • Autobiographical or personal memories of events or places is episodic memories
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MSM 12 Mark Question AO1


  • Attkinson & Shiffrin
  • 3 distinct stores
  • SM-Holds information in the senses for brief periods of time 
  • STM-Limited capacity, encodes mainly acoustically, short duration
  • LTM-Potentially unlimited capacity and duration, encodes mainly semantically
  • If a persons attention is focused on information in SM it is transferred to STM or displaced
  • STM to LTM through rehearsal 
  • The more it is rehearsed, the better it is rememebered
  • Without rehearsal, information is displaced
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MSM 12 Mark Question AO2

  • Glanzer & Cunitz gave pts word list to remember and found that people recalled more words from the begining of the list
  • Due to primacy effect suggests words have been encoded to LTM due to rehearsal
  • Modern brain scanning-Prefrontal cotex active when working on STM task and hippocampus active when engaged in LTM task
  • Simplistic, assumes both stores are individual made up of one component each but research and evidence of brain damaged patients such as KF have demonstrated STM consists of different stores
  • Cannot explain flashbulb memoeries where information is encoded into LTM without rehearsal
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Working Memory Model-Central Executive

  • Controls the activity of WMM
  • Co ordinated the 2 slave systems
  • Directs attention the most important information at the expense of the other less important information
  • Modality free-can process information from any sense
  • Used when carrying out difficult mental tasks such as problem solving
  • Can also be used for the temporary storage of informaition while another task is being carried out in STM
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Working Memory Model-Visuo Spatial Sketchpad

  • Inner eye
  • Uses a visual code dealing with the temporary storage of cisual and spatial items and the relationship between them
  • Helps to naviaget around and interact with your phsical environment
  • Material is rehearsed and encoded through mental pictures
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Working Memory Model-Articulatory Phonological Loo

  • Auditory store
  • Deals with speach based information
  • Capacity is determined by the amount of information that can be rehearsed  before it fades
  • Baddeley suggests that it is limited to what you can say out loud in roughly 2 seconds. Therefore lists of short words are easier to remember than long words
  • Divided into phonologial store and articulatory contol system
  • Phonological store- a passive storage system that deals with the perception of sounds ans speach
  • Spoken words enter the store directly 
  • Written words must be converted into spoken words to enter the phonological store
  • Articulatory control system-an active rehearsal system where words from the phonological store can be maintained by subvocal repetition
  • Circulates information round like a tape loop until the material is spoken
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