Memory Studies

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  • Created by: Violaa
  • Created on: 17-01-16 19:06

Encoding in STM- Baddeley (1966)

Gave different lists of words to 4 groups of pps to learn:

Group 1-words that sounded similar (e.g.cat, bat, rat)

Group 2-words that sounded different (e.g.pit,cow)

Group 3- words with similar meanings (e.g.big,large,massive)

Group 4-words with dissimilar meanings (e.g.hot,safe,drink)

pps in group 1 only recalled 10% of the words due to acoustic confusion

pps in group 2 recalled 80% of the the words.

information in STM is encoded on an acoustic basis

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Capacity in STM- Miller (1956)

Gave pps a list of digits and asked them to recall as many as possible.

Found pps could recall an average of 7 items

Magic Number 7 plus or minus 2

STM capacity is limited and ranges from 5-9 items

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Duration of STM- Peterson and Peterson (1959)

24 pps had to recall trigrams (e.g.LGK)

Presented pps with a trigram to remember and then told to count backwards from a three digit number given to them

Told to stop counting backwards after a different amount of time: 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 or 18 seconds

After 3 seconds, pps able to recall 80% of the trigrams correctly

After 18 seconds, pps able to recall only 10% of the trigrams correctly

Shows that STM duration is very short and limited to less than 20 seconds if rehearsal is prevented

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Encoding in LTM- Baddeley (1966)

Gave different lists of words to 4 groups of pps to learn:

Group 1-words that sounded similar (e.g.cat, bat, rat)

Group 2-words that sounded different (e.g.pit,cow)

Group 3- words with similar meanings (e.g.big,large,massive)

Group 4-words with dissimilar meanings (e.g.hot,safe,drink)

To test encoding in LTM, pps given a list of the original words in the wrong order

Task was to arrange them in the correct order, there was a 20 minute delay before they did this and the pps completed a different task

pps in group 3 performed worst with a recall of 55% because of semantic confusion in LTM

Suggests information is encoded on a semantic basis

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Capacity in LTM- Anokhin (1973)

Estimated number of neural connections in the brain is ! followed by 10.5 km of noughts

Concluded, "no human yet exists who can use all the potential of their brain"

Suggests capacity of LTM is unlimited

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Duration of LTM- Bahrick et al. (1975)

Tested memory of 400 patients aged 17-74 years for their former classmates

Asked to identify and name faces of their classmates in their year book

Those who left school in the last 15 years recalled 90% of faces and names

Even those who had left school in the last 48 years recalled 70% of faces and names

Shows that duration of LTM can potentially last a lifetime, especially if the material is processed well and consists of images and feelings rather than just facts

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