Capacity of the STM

Jacobs - 9.3 items and 7.3 letters

Miller - 7-/+2 items and is increased by the use of chunking


  • Individual differences in age and ability to chunk
  • STM may be more limited and the lower end of Millers scale
  • The size of the chunk affects memory suggesting we have a better memory for smaller chunks
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Duration of STM and LTM

STM - Peterson and Peterson of a constant syllable and three digit number

90% correct after 3 seconds, 20% after 9 and 2% after 18

LTM - Bahrick tested 50 year book photos

Free recall 48 years 30%, 15 years 60%

Face recognition 48 years 78%, 15 years 90%


  • Artifical due to the use of constant syllables
  • Duration of STM may be longer when auditory tones are used
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Used acoustically similar words and semantically similar words

Found STM is acoustic

Found LTM is semantic


  • May not have tested LTM due to only waiting 20 minutes
  • STM can also use visual coding
  • LTM may store using deep or shallow processing
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Multi Store Model of Memory

Atkinson and Shiffrin

Sensory Register, Attention, STM, Maintanance Reheasal, LTM, Retrevial


  • Brain scans show the pre-frontal cortex is active during STM
  • HM personality and intellect remained intact but couldn't form new LTMs
  • LTM maybe coded for by deep or shallow processing
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The Working Model of Memory

Baddeley and Hitch

Central Executive, Phonological Loop (Inner ear and aticulatory loop), Visuo-spatial sketchpad (visual cache and inner scribe) and the Episodic Buffer


  • Studies prove dual task performance
  • Central executive is vague (EVR)
  • KF auditory problems support the single stores
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Types of LTM

Episodic Memories - personal events of memories that contain emotional and contextual detail

Semantic Memories - facts and knowledge

Procedural Memories - how to complete a task


  • Hippocampus is active during episodic and temporal lobe in semantic
  • HM was able to draw a picture but couldn't remember doing it
  • LTM can be used to treat mild congnitve impairment
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Proactive interference (learning of lists)

Retroactive interference (nonsense syllables with an interveining act before recall

Similarity of Test Materials

Real world study


  • Questions into whether interference is temporary
  • Issue with research due to the use of nonsense syllables
  • Individual differences of working memory
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Retrieval Failure

Limited LTM, the Encoding Specificity Principle (present at the time of retrieval), Cues (Tulving and Pearlstone), Context dependant forgetting, State dependant forgetting


  • Real world applications of exams
  • Cues don't always work due to complex memory associations
  • It is impossible to test whether the memory has actually been encoded
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Misleading Information

Loftus and Palmer (broken glass study)

Conformity effect

Repeat interviewing


  • Considerable support due to Disneyland
  • EWT may not be inaccurate and unrealiable
  • Individual differences
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Johnson and Scott

Real life study in Sweden


  • Weapon focus could be more to do with suprise
  • Case studies don't create the real levels of anxiety
  • More accuracy in violent crimes
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The Cognitve Interview

The Standard Police Interview

The Cognitive Interview (Mental reinstatment, Change the Order, Change the Perspective and Report Everything)


  • Research into the effectiveness by meta analysis
  • Mental reinstatement and Report everything make the CI more effective
  • Police need special training
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