Public Health since c.1900
-Benjamin Seebohm Rowntree
- Industrialist and philanthropist.
- Carried out his own survey of york. These were later publised in a book 'Poverty, a study of Town life.
- His studies showed that almost 29% of people in york were living in poverty. This helped show others the problem.
- Became good friends with David Lloyd George and thus influenced the Liberal partys reforms.
-Reforms of the Liberal government
- Provision of school Meals Act, 1906
- School Medical Services Act
- Old Age Pensions Act, 1908
- Workmens Compensation Act, 1906 (part 2, 1911)
- Natioal Insurance Act, 1911
- Labour Exchanges Act, 1909
Public health since c.1900
-The weaknesses of the lberals' social reforms
- Free school meals were not compulsory so many councils did not provide them.
- Old age pensions only applied to those that had worked.
- Labor exchanged did not create jobs so the problem of unemployment persisted.
- Under the national insurance act health care was only available to the wage earner.
- Contributions to the National Insurance Scheme was relatively high for the poor.
- Benefits were often not enough for families to live on.
- The Conservative and Labour partys were both rising in popularity and the Liberal party did not so it lost support.
Charles Booth and William Beveridge
- A philanthropist that was critical of statistics involving poverty.
- He carried out a survay of east London andfound that almost 35% of people lived in poverty. This was a full 10% above what the socialist party leader had said.
- His reserch was published in 1889 but he continued to resewrch the conditions of poverty until 1903.
- One of his proposals was that of old age pensions.
- Econamist and expert on unemployment benefits
- Proposed that workers should pay national insurance so that the poor could receive benefits.
- His proposals eventualy led to the introduction of the welfare state and the national health service
Reactions to the Beveridge report
- Doctors thought that they may lose their freedom to charge as they become government employees.
- Some local councils and charities objected to the government taking over hospitals.
- Some thought poverty and sickness were a result of idleness therefore was the fault of the individual and they should not have to pay for other peoples wellfare
BENEFITS OF THE NHS
- Free treatment for ALL patients
- National ownership of hospitals
- Drs paid by gvt and could also charge for private work
As a result, life expextancy in UK improved
LIMITATIONS OF THE NHS
- NHS under pressure due to longer life expectancy caused by better healthcare!
- Some services still chargeable - eg Adult dental work
- Some services oversubscribed - eg Cancer treatments
- Services prioritised by each NHS trust based on evidence and good use of taxpayers' funding
- Some services not available countrywide - the 'Postcode Lottery' - IVF
Benjamin Seebohm Rowntree
- Industrialist & philanthropist (Eg Bingham in Ciren)
- Carried out own survey in York regarding welfare, poverty etc
- 29% in poverty in York almost exactly same result as Booth's study in London
- Close friends with David Lloyd-George therefore influenced liberal reforms