Medicine through time

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Pre-historic medicine

They were nomadic and they couldn't read and write and they also believed in spirits and knew very little on bone structure. The aborigines believed that illness was caused when a person spirit was lost or stolen by an enemy. The aborigines stitched up wound and set broken bones by encasing them by mud, this shows the pre-historic people could of done this. 

The only form of surgery that was done by prehistoric people was the trephinning of the skull, this was done to remove an evil spirit. Some skulls were precisily cut and they was a re-growth of bone which proves that some patients survived this surgery therefore shows that they had the ability and knowledge to become surgeons.

The aborigines diagnosed disease by a spritual way, by a trance or though majic rituals, this could also show that prehistoric people also did this.

The prehistoric people had no idea of personal health and they also buried the excrement far away so that the enemy doesnt find it and stea their spirit

They could of had witch docters which combined healing and other spirtual functions.

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Egyptian medicine

-Kings employed physicins such as imhotep

- farmers observing irrigation channels led to the Channel theory

- they had basic hygience such as latrines and bath

- roles of docters emerged

- mummification advanced priests knowledge on internal organs

- the idea of cleanlines was a religious concept

- they were teaching books for docters and books of remedies

- they measured out medicines and developed treatment over time

- traders brought back healing herbs and spices from around the world

- medical knowledge spread over world and egyptian docters became famous

- the observed patients and they recorded cures if they worked or not

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Egyptian medicine

-Egyptian had knowledge of bone structure and had some understanding of breathing, the brain and liver.

-The egyptian believed that life was created and controlled by gods

-The egyptian developed the idea that disease occured when evil spirit blocked on of the body channels

- there was a breakthrough because it meant docters abandon purely the idea of spritual cures

- they were also good and reset dislocaed joins and mend broken bones and wore excellent in bandaging

- they used surgical instruments but they never venture inside the body

- egyptian docters examined their patients, they also had practical treatembts using ochre, cinnamon and pepper.

- they based their cures on the channel theory and made people vomit, bleed and empty bowels and this would cure illnesses

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Egyptian medicine

- they took care of personal cleanliness and apperance and used eye makeup to help protect their eyes from diseases, and they slept under mosquito nets

- priests for religious reasons kept themselves clean and washed themselves regularly

- docters believed that god caused disease

- first people to develop cures based on facts and observation

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believed god was the cause of illness

greek built ideas of hippocrates and in egypt alexandria dissection was allowed and some did vivsection on criminals

the greeks found out more of the inside of the body and the brain controls the body not the heart

started to believe that prayers were usless and the cause of disease was because of the enviroment

the theory of the four humours- diseases occured if the humours were unbalanced - blood,phlegm, yellow bile and black bile

greeks carried out clinical oberservation and made a diagnosis by looking at the patient from head to foot they also used hippocrates books

they used honey and vinegar for a natural cure

they went to the temple of asclepious and slept and excercised

many rich greeks, ate healthy and excercised as there was no public health

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roman medicine

perferred prevention rather than cure

they made aqua ducts, public baths and sewers

they needed a healthy army so they thought about public health

the capture of slaves brought greeks docters to rome

romans didnt allow dissection, the progress was slow but they did explore prevention and cures of disease - they rejected greek ideas so knowledge of disease did not progress

galen dissected animals, he did work on human corpses of crimianals

he experimented with pigs and found out about the nervous system takes messages from brain to muscles

galen accepted the four humours

galen thought humans have 2 jaw bones but we only have 1

they were good at first aid - they also made surgical instruments and did caesarean

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roman medicine

some roman docters carried out clinical observation

they had remedies such as yolk for dysentry and boiled liver for sore eyes

galen discovered the theory of opposites and that if you are hot, cucomber should heal you

romans developed the first ever system of public health

they realised they needed to keep their soldiers healthy

galen prescribed gym excerised same as hippocrates

romans built aquaducts for fresh water 

roman built public baths so people can wash themselves but there was a fee

romans built sewers which were flushed by the streams they were called cloaca maxima and they forced 300 slaves to clean the streets when people were asleep

they built hospitals for soldiers

romans believed the cause of disease was tiny creatures and bad air

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middle ages

- couldnt afford universities and public health

-roman and greek ideas were lost and they were only preserved in muslim middle east

-communication was difficult so ideas travelled slowely 

-technology was limited

- medicine was dominated by the roman catholic church 

- people believed in what they were told

- church forbid dissection and encouraged prayer and superstition 

- war disrupted communication and learning

- many books of greeks and romans were lost replaced by superstition

- church said galen was correct, no need to investigate further

- medieval docters belived in four humours and that sins and jewish people causes diseases

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middle ages

- believed life was controlled by gods and that the plague was caused because of sins and was a punishment from god, and blamed the black death on the conjunction of mars, saturn and jupiter

- hippocrates books were translated into arabic in the middle east

- ibn nafiz challenged these errors and developed new ideas, muslim knowledge slowly moved to the west

- surgeons skillls were in demand, so surgery was left to barbers and wine was used as an antiseptic and they used opium and hemlock as anaesthetics

- there was surgery such as removing face ulcers and carried out interal surgery such as removing bladder stones

- they had no idea dirt carried diseased and when surgery took place as it would lead to infections and then death 

- they carried out trephining to let the demon out

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middle ages

- medievel towns did not have system of sewers so the streets were filthy and garbage and human waste was thrown out into the streets and houses were made of wood and dung

- there was many rats and fleas

- docters advised the people to wash their faces and brush their teeth

- towns had bath houses

- people realised that a room next to a privey is unhealthy and had people clear out the cess pits

- medievel kings passed law to keep the street clean

- during time of plague, people boarded up houses of the people that were infected

- they believed in four homours so they use leeches to **** out the blood and carried out purging 

- people carried out flaggellation to show god they are sorry for their sins 

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- goverment was strong and rich and the economy boomed this allowed people to hire docters

- artist such as leonardo da vinci drew accurate pictures of the body this led to an improved knowledge on anatomy - fabric of the human body - by versalius had high quality drawings

- universities were estabilished and people conducted experiements and collected observations

- they invented the printing press and allowed new ideas to move around europe

- discovering of america by columbus meant that new food and new medicine was brought back  

- renaissance saw an improved knowledge in anatomy and physiology but many people still rejected new ideas and they still hadnt discovered germs

- versalius searched in cemeteries for bones and for bodies to dissect

- he found out galen was wrong as human has 1 jaw bone

- he became professor of medicine in a univeristy and said students should dissect themselves

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- he discovered the principle of the circulation of the blood

- he calculated it was impossible for the blood to be burned up as galen had claimed

- pare discovered by chance that yolks and rose oil treated wounds better as it was soothing

- laudnaum was a painkiller that was used for general pain and headache 

- edward jenner discovered how vaccination could prevent disease by infecting people with cow pox protected them from small pox 

- if people caught the plague their houses were shut up for a month

- bodies were buried at night

- dogs and cats were killed 

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19th century

- there was an explosion of industries and diseases such as lung disease and dermatitis was becoming more common

- there was urbanisation which has public health problems such as chloera and thypus

- there was more wealth so more research could take place for medical and public health

- there was an advance in technology

- improved communications allowed docters to spread knowledge all over the world

- growth of science and reseach led to medical breakthroughs

- right of health was a "right of man" claiming by people in french revolution

- evolution from darwin broke the control of church in medicine

- wars required new techniques and new medical techniques

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19th century

- louis paster using a swan necked flask that germs cause disease, docter noticed bacteria and believed diseased caused bactera but it was the other way round

- paster discovery of pasteurisation of milk prevented milk from getting sour by killing germs and sealing it from air

- robert koch who discovered how to stain and grow bacteria in a petri dish, he found out which bacteria caused which disease

charles chamberland - found out there was other organism smaller than bacteria that caused disease- he has discovered viruses

joseph lister invented multi lens microscope which allowed docter to see things accuretly

- louis pasteur started as research chemist he set up a team of pasteurs institute

- robert koch discovered his postulates of how research should find a diseaase

- make sure germ is present in sick specimen

- grow culture of germ

- inject into healthy specimen

- see if disease develops

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19th century

- james simpson disovered chloroform - anaesthetics

- there was laughing gas which was also used

- antispectics such as calcium chloride solution was used for docter to wash their hands in hungary this cut the death rate

- florench nightingale improved the standards of cleanliness in hospitals

- joseph lister based his ideas on paster germ theory and sprayed carbolic acid on instruments and bandages

- surgeons boiled instruments to sterilise them and used rubber gloves and face masks when operating

- public demonstrations of anaethetics allowed knowledge to spread

- queen victoria gave birth to children under anaethetic, the lessened the public fears of it

- the crimean war led to development of nursing

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19th century

Charles chamberland discovered by chance that injecting chicken with a weaked form of chlorea gave them immunity to the disease - inoculation

- louis pasteur developed innoculation against antherax and rabies 

- paul ehrilch discovered magic bullets - compounds that are attracted to disease causing microorganism which target and kill them

- public health - the growing towns of britain was overcrowded and had bad housing, bad water and diseases

- edward chadwick said that disease was the reason for poverty 

- cholera epidemic forced goverment to do something to prevent diseases through public health

- 1848 first public health act - gave each town a medical officer

- 1853 vaccination against small pox was made compulsary 

- 1854 improvement in hospital were introduced

- 1875 - public health act enforced slum clearance, and removal of nuisance

- councils were competing with each other for the best public health act 

- 1906 free school meals were provided for poor children

- 1907 school medical examination were ordered for all children

- 1908 pensions were introduced

- 1911 national insurance was introduced

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