Medicine and Treatment.

Medicine and it's development through time from the classical Period of the Greeks and Romans, through to the present day.

Public Health in Britan from the Roman period to the present time. Also the transformation of surgery c1845-1918.

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Hippocrates

Hippocrates was a doctor around 460BC from the island of Koe. He later died around 380BC.

The Hippocratic Collection had around 60 books. which was supposedly written by Hippocrates himself. They were written between 430-300BC, not all were written by Hippocrates.

Hippocrates used the terms 'Diagnosis' - The cause of disease, by consideration of symptoms and 'Prognosis' - The Outcome of disease, which was predicted. This made Hippocrates significant in Classical Medicine, for his approach to medicine.

A technique used by Hippocratic doctors was called Clinical Observation. The doctor records the disease, how the ilness was developed and would record every symptom. They used this to dermatin the illness.

The theroy of the Four Humors were developed by the Ancient Greeks, believing four liquids in the body had to be in perfect balance to be healthy.

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Hippocratic Doctors

Hippocratic doctors encoraged a healthy lifestyle by saying what to eat, how much to drink, how much exersize to do, how much sleep and also keeping clean. This would be written in books and told to patients.

Hippocratic attitudes towards medicine influenced doctors behaviour because hippocrates wanted them to believe in his theroy rather than magic.

Hippocratic ideas lead to incorrect explanations about the cause and cure of illness and being accepted correct for thousands of years due an explanation which 'wasn't' better.

Hippocratic doctors were only able to give medicine, if they were sure they knew what was wrong with the patient.

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Galen

Galen was influenced by Hippocratic medicine, he also accepted the 'four humours'. He used Clinical Observation, like Greek doctors.

Blood letting made Galen's approach to medicine different to Greek medicine, as he rejected some of their ideas and went to blood letting instead.

He was only able to dissect pigs and apes which were already dead, due to religeon. He made mistakes about the Human anatomy. He was influental with this though, as nobody else knew or had ideas better, Galens idea was accepted.

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Medicine and the Dark Ages

There was no system for training doctors, so people could be a doctor, with no experience. They would rely on a mixture of practical remedies and superstition.

Folk medicine did have value, One historian identified 185 plants that was listed to have medical properties in a 10th Century Anglo-Saxon book.

Many libaries were destroyed, all accept herbal books and 'The Four Humours' books. The people in the 'Dark Ages' weren't as interested in theoretical books and more interested in herbal books.

 

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Islamic World and medicine

The Islamic empire was established in the Middle East and North Africa. AD -786-809.

The Government supported Medical Care. Hospitals were open to Men and Women, The poor and the rich, there were even Hospitals for the mental.

Caliph Harun Al-Rasnid was significant in the Islamic world. He set up Hospitals everybody could use.

A 'Bamiristan' - a Hospital caring for everyone.

Medical care in the Islamic world contrasted with Cristian Europe, as in Western Europe Hippocrates and Galen were forgotten.

Al Razi made a major contrupution to medical knowledge, he was also influental as a writer, in Western Europe.

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