Medicine and Health Through Time

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  • Created by: S
  • Created on: 25-11-12 14:38

Prehistoric Britain

    • High infant mortality
    • Pregnancy and childbirth dangerous
    • People generally fit due to lifestyle
    • Good teeth due to no sugar in diet
    • Osteoarthritis common
    • Short lives (40 years)
    • We use modern tribes to learn about Prehistory e.g. Aborigines/Native Americans
    • Role of spirits, medicine men, charms and herbs
    • Women generally treated the sick
    • Basic surgery e.g. setting broken bones, trephining
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Ancient Egypt 3000BC-1000BC

  • Trade – new ideas shared
  • Writing – remedies recorded
  • Religion – mummification
  • The Nile and Farming – herbs and plants
  • Specialist doctors used metal instruments
  • Women still treated the sick
  • The Channels of the body – logical cures
  • Charms, temples, herbal remedies, hygiene and Gods
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Ancient Greece 1200BC-500BC

  • Asclepius and the Asclepion
  • Hippocrates and The Theory of the Four Humours à all fitted with the four elements/seasons
  • Observation – looking for logical cures
  • Doctors and women treated the sick
  • Herbal remedies and better hygiene/diet
  • Surgical instruments developed (iron and steel)
  • Alexandria – sharing of medical knowledge
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Ancient Rome 600BC-500AD

  • Strong centralised Govt and wealthy
  • Army à surgery and hospitals/communication
  • Doctors – Galen and Theory of Opposites
  • Dissection in Alexandria and pig experiment
  • Gods – Asclepius
  • Promoted exercise and healthy living
  • Public Health à water/toilets/sewers
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Middle Ages 500-1450

  • Regression after fall of Roman Empire/chaos
  • Church controlled knowledge of medicine and Galen’s ideas fitted in with God’s word
  • Towns created health problems – very dirty
  • Black Death – smells, humours, planets, God
  • Medical schools/unis, urine charts, herbal remedies, basic surgery & hospitals, bleeding and midwives
  • Public Health à butchery controlled, gutters, dirt removal, privies, wells away from cesspits, fines for litter dropping
  • Ibn Sinna (Avicenna) and Rhazes and Arab medicine
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Renaissance 1450-1750

  • Andreas Vesalius and anatomy (used artists for book after dissection questioned Galen!)
  • Ambroise Pare and surgery (ligatures/herbs)
  • William Harvey and circulation (capillaries)
  • Paracelsus challenged Galen – disease outside
  • Herbal remedies (Mildmay), blood letting, operations (war and Wiseman) & the King’s evil
  • Plague à watchmen, searchers, no dogs, incubation
  • Physicians, apothecary, surgeons, midwives (forceps), quacks, family and wise women
  • Change and continuity
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Industrial Revolution 1750-1900

    • Impact of Industrial Revolution à urbanisation, political change, science, technology, entrepreneurs, war and communications
    • Killer diseases à Cholera, TB, smallpox, Flu, measles, typhoid, diphtheria & whooping cough
    • Edward Jenner and vaccination for smallpox
    • Florence Nightingale and improved hospitals
    • Doctors (stethoscope), dispensaries (Boots), domestic medicine, patent medicine (quacks/pills) and nursing (Elizabeth Garrett)
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Industrial Revolution 1750-1900

  • Microscopes à germs
  • Spontaneous generation Vs Pasteur’s Germ Theory 1850s
  • Robert Koch 1860s – anthrax, staining and agar jelly
  • France Vs Germany à more vaccines
  • Magic Bullets 1890s (Behring and Ehrlich – Salvarsan and then sulphonamides and penicillin)
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Industrial Revolution 1750-1900

  • Surgery à 3 x problems
  • PAIN – 1799 Davy’s laughing gas,1846 Liston’s ether and 1857 Simpson’s choloform
  • INFECTION – 1847 Semmelweiss ‘wash hands’, 1867 Lister’s aseptic surgery (carbolic spray) and 1894 rubber gloves
  • BLOOD LOSS – failure to solve the issue of blood loss until 20th century
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Industrial Revolution 1750-1900

  • Public Health à  Laissez Faire then John Snow’s report on the Broad Street Pump 1854
  • Edwin Chadwick – 1842 report recommending  reforms e.g. slum clearance, sewers & medical officers
  • 1848 Public Health Act – Board of Health but local changes voluntary so improvements slow
  • 1875 Public Health Act – forced local councils to provide clean water, proper sewers and Medical Officers – why? Voters, education, leading cities, statistics, more cholera and science
  • AND? 1802 on Factory Acts, 1852 compulsory vaccination, 1858 doctor’s qualifications,  1870 schools, 1876 Building/Food Regulations and laws against river pollution & 1889 Isolation Hospitals
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The Twentieth Century

    • Great War à x-rays (1895 Wilhelm Rontgen), homes for heroes, blood transfusion (1901 four blood groups) and plastic surgery
    • Magic Bullets – 1906 Ehrlich’s Salvarsan 606 (syphilis), 1932 Domagk’s Prontosil (blood poisoning), discovery of sulphonamides (electron microscope 1931) and many new cures developed
    • Penicillin 1928 Fleming, 1937 Chain and Florey, 1942 US/GB cooperate and in WWII used frequently
    • Drug development – mistakes and advances (Thalidomide and genetic engineering)
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The Twentieth Century

    • Infant mortality decreased – charity, education, training for midwives, health visitors, slum clearance, free school meals, day nurseries, breast feeding and vaccinations
    • WWII helped health – diet, evacuation, drugs, surgery, blood transfusions and the NHS
    • What kills people today?  Cancer, obesity, HIV/Aids, Heart Disease,
    • Improvements in surgery – resources, teamwork, keyhole and micro-surgery
    • Alternative medicine – acupuncture, homeopathy, hypnotherapy
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The Twentieth Century

    • The NHS à  1911 National Health Insurance
    • 1930s Economic Depression people rely on cheap remedies
    • 1939 Emergency Hospital Scheme
    • 1942 Beveridge proposes NHS
    • 5th July 1948 first day of NHS
    • 1960s hospital building/restructuring
    • 1970s campaigns against smoking
    • 1990/91 Hospitals allowed to become Trusts (competition first introduced in 1989)
    • 1992 five targets à heart disease, cancer, mental illness, HIV/Aids and accidents
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The Twentieth Century and Beyond

  • Public Health à  Home for Heroes, slum clearance, cleaner air, access to fresh water, safe sewage disposal, laws for safe working conditions, food labels, building regulations etc.
  • Poverty à  the developing world still suffers and is often exploited by the West
  • The story of medicine continues – stem cell research, cloning etc.
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