Medicine Through Time and Public Health


  • Shaman, Spirits
  • Trephaning- releasing evil spirits by drilling a hole in the head
  • Medicinal Herbs and mud is used to set bones
  • No centralised government
  • No written language which means the communication wasnt great.
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  • Bronze tools used for simple surgeries and mummification
  • Channel Theory which links to how the river nile was seperated by different channels.
  • Doctors thought that the heart controlled the body
  • Good communication due to the fact that they used hieroglyphics
  • Mosquito nets protects people from mosquitoes and malaria.
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  • Hippocrates
  • Clinical observation
  • Hippocratic Oath- doctors had to follow the rules of the hippocratic oath.
  • Asclepian temples/Asclepious (god of healing)   
  • Still very religious beliefs
  • Used steel and iron tools for minor surgeries
  • Dissection wasnt allowed
  • Four humours which links to the different seasons which determine what symptoms you have
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  • Claudius Galen main doctor for the roman empire
  • Romans had a very strong army and a centralised governement
  • Galen came up with the idea of the Theroy of Opposite
  • They had sewers, bath houses and aqueducts
  • Hospitals for the poor and the people who needed the treatment
  • They made the link with dirty water and disease
  • A lot of continuity from the Greek and what they believed in
  • Galen proved the brain controlled the body using a pig as the test subject.
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  • Black death 1348
  • People and doctors didn't know the cause of disease.
  • Flageallants whipped themselves to punish themselves instead of the black death.
  • Communication brough ships to britain.
  • it was by chance that the rats carrying black death were on that ship.
  • 1/3 of people in britain died because of the disease.
  • Barber surgeons did simple surgeries because they were very skilled with a knife.
  • Doctors got a lo of knowledge from isamic doctors.
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  • Kings touch- made people believe that the kings touch would be able to cure any disease.
  • Pare- he had a short term impact, he used cooling ointments for wounds. Bizare.
  • Versalius- he had a short and long term impact and he wrote the book called 'The Fabric of the Human Body'. this book was one of the most influential books for human anatomy. he also made human anatomy into a profession.
  • Harvey- linked the heart to the water pump and he said that the blood is pumped around the body. However, he was hindered by technology because he couldnt prove his theories or how they worked.
  • Printing press was invented and it was mainly for communication.
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  • Vaccination was compulsory 
  • People resented the government because of the laissez-faire attitude.
  • 1861 Louis Pasteur came up with the germ theory and this proved that there were some things in the air affecting people. 
  • Chicken cholera vaccination
  • Government gave Pasteur fundings so that he could improve his ideas.
  • Chloroform was an anaesthetic to help relieve pain for surgeries.
  • Intricate operations inside the body.
  • Lister anabolic reduced diseases from 45% to 15% and antiseptics.
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  • 1901 Karl Landsteiner discovered different blood groups.
  • WW1 makes the doctors realise how they can store blood.
  • Surgical improvements have been made.
  • 1902's penicillin was mass produced by the US government.
  • 1948 NHS has progressed but some services have been stripped away.
  • Crick and Watson discovered DNA.
  • 1967 Barnard did the first heart transplant. 
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