Wide angle shot: This has the effect of seeming to exagerate perspective.
Telephoto shot: Like using a telescope, a telephoto lens appears to bring the subject closer and flatten out perspective.
Zoom lenses: These can vary the angles of view, from wide angle to telephoto, so that the subject appears to move closer without the camera moving itself.
Focus: Everything in the shot appears to be in focus, which means that we can be looking at action taking place in the foreground, middle ground and background
Shallow focus: The subject is in focus and the background is not.
Focus pull: Using the zoom lens a person in the foreground in focus becoes out of focus and the focus shifts to a different subjects in the frame.
High-key: The lighting is bright and relatively low in contrast: often used for Hollywool musical comedies
Low-key: Much more pronounced shadows and dramatic contrasts
cold or blueish lighting, can connote a sense of cold, alienation or technology. Warm or yellowish lighting, can connotate comfort, sunset and so on. Black and white or sepia. can suggest sophistication or that a scene is set in the past.
There are two main types of editing that we will encounter in mainstream films and TV programes
Continuity editing: Film sequences are edited so that time seems to flow uninterupted from shot to shot. 'Cross-cutting' are when sequence cut between two different settings.
Montage editing: Visual images are assembled in a sequence to build up an impression and create meaning. The cuts are often noticeable. Juxtaposition of images can create a contrst rather than a smooth flow.
Editing part 2
cut: One image is suddenly repplaced by another, without a visible transition
Cross-dissolve: One image dissolves into another. This can be used to make a montage sequence. It can also be used in continuity editing to show that we have moved forward in time.
Fade up: An image gradually emerges from a blank screen.
Fade out: An image gradually fades out. Usually meaning time has passed.
Wipe: One image replaces another without dissolving. with the border between the images moving across or around the screen.
Diagetic sound: Sound that seems to be part of what is going on on the screen. Sounds that seem natural to the scene, such as the sound of thunder
Non-Diagetic sounds: Sounds taht we know arent part of what is on screen. Sounds which have been added in editing after the filming.
Sound bridge: this is used to link two scenes, by having the picture and the diegetic sound changing at different points. Usually the sound from the second scene is heard before we start to see the picture from that scene.
Sound effects: In media terms this means all sounds in a media text apart from dialohue and music. Sounds are intensified and others added in the post production state.