Issues and Debates
- Mass-Amateurisation/Citizen Journalism: Blogs, YouTube = Professionals out of work.
- Adorno and the Frankfurt School (1991) : Charismatic celebrities may have either positive or negative outcomes on the public.
- Constructionist View of Representation: Knowledge is constructed by representations.
- Reflective View of Representation: Media narrative and language reflects reality.
- Cultural Imperialism: One country dominates others' consumption and ideologies
- Giddens (2003): We live in a 'runaway world' where cultures, economies and politics appear to merge across national borders.
- Herman and Chomsky: 'Manufacturing consent' filters available information, controlling audiences.
- Gramsci: Repeated representations in the media become dominant ideologies, such as the middle class in power.
- Contexts: Social (To entertain), Economic (To make a profit), Historical (Background of the text).
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Issues and Debates
- Habermas:(1991): Focus in the media is mainly on celebrities, ignoring political opinions and debates on government action.
- Danny Miller: Viewers use texts to explore social and moral contradictions in their own society.
- Cultural Concern: An issue that sociery or culture becomes preoccupied with or worried about.
- Mcluhan: The medium is the message which influences society.
- On Demand: No 9pm Watershed.
- The Cultivation Perspective: Watching a range of similar media texts reflects a misinterpretation of reality.
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- Auteur Theory: The director is the author of their film expressing individual style.
- Barthes Myths (1967):A culture repeats frequently told stories to convey dominant ideologies.
- Barthes Narrative Codes (1974): -Action codes: audiences are involved by following the details of a plot. -Enigmatic Codes -Symbolic Codes: identification.
- Binary oppositions
- Hall: -Decoding and Encoding model emphasising audience interpretation. -The meaning is in the audience reading.
- Indexical Signs: Assumes a relationship between the signifier and signified.
- Structuralism: Using a semiotic perspective, media texts can be analysed as languages or signifying systems.
- Neale: Pleasure comes with difference.
- Paradigm: A set of signs which producers can choose from to create their text.
- Syntagm: A new meaning from the added signs. Central to creating genre.
- Poststructuralism: Emphasises the range of interpretations within a text.
- Queer Theory: Rejects conventional expressions of behaviour.
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- Saussure (1983): -Syntactic level: denotation of text. -Representational level: representations conveyed. -Symbolic level: hidden cultural meaning.
- Scopophilia: The pleasure of looking at people secretly.
- Semiotics: The study of codes and languages and the signs from which they are made.
- Signified: Idea, meaning or concept represented by signifier.
- Signifier: The visible part of a sign such as image.
- Market-Liberalism: Politically conservative perspective stressing the power of audience over media producers. Audience preference decides which media texts are produced.
- Voyeurism: Gaining pleasure from watching, especially secretly, other people's behaviour
- Fiske: There is a tendency to read connotations as if they were self-truths.
- Social Learning Theory: Bandura's Bobo Doll Experiment: Human behaviour is learnt by imitating behaviour.
- Morley (1980): -Dominant Reading: Preferred reading -Negotiated Reading: Audience shares some embedded ideologies. -Oppositional Reading: Audience reject preferred reading.
- Liberal Pluralism: Media audiences select and choose media texts.
- Two step flow theory: semi-active theory where opinion leaders spread the word about media texts and people share this information.
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News Values and Bias
- Timeliness: Current
- Proximity: Local Information
- Conflict and Controversy: Violence
- Human Interest: Unusual or Identifiable
- Relevance: Helps make decisions
- Elite Nations or People
- Personality: Celebrities
- Story Selection: Ignores stories coinciding with opposite view.
- Placement: Importance of news story.
- Spin: One interpretation of an event or policy.
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- In 2009, 95% of music downloads were illegal -The Guardia, Jan 2009
- In 2011, the fewest cinema tickets since 1995 were sold" -Time: Business and Money, Jan 2012
- "Glossy magazines can give you anorexia" -Daily Mail, May 2012
- "Most illegal downloaders are being tracked" -The Telegraph, Sept 2012
- "Children damaged by online **** at age 11" -The Metro, Oct 2012
- "Nine are fined for revealing **** victim online" -The Metro, Nov 2012
- "One in six download and streams illegally" -The Metro, Nov 2012
- "Gangnam up on them all" -The Metro, Dec 2012
- "Social networking sites are being used to move children" -The Metro, Jan 2013
- "Miss Vogue recieves cautious welcome from health campaigners" -The Guardian, Jan 2013
- "A smartphone that turns into a mini cinema" HTC One -The Metro, Feb 2013
- "Courts ban pirate sites from use" after shutting down The Pirate Bay -The Metro, Feb 2013
- "I left him playing COD then he was dead" -The Metro, Feb 2013
- "Police use drunk's satnav to find home-alone child" -The Metro, March 2013
- "Cyber crooks use fake keypads to get people's pin numbers" -The Metro, March 2013
- 60% of the UK population own a smartphone in 2013 -NewMedia TrendWatch
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- The Columbine Incident 1999, Klebold and Harris
- The Virginia Tech Massacre 2007, Cho
- The Batman Shootings 2012, Holmes > The Gangster Squad film
- Iranian Presidential Elections 2009, Twitter increased the amount of coverage
- James Bulger's death caused by Child's Play 3? 1993
- Argo: USA are superior to Iran. Iranians are seen as hostile
- Broadchurch: Newspaper stories are constructed. Unless there is a high profile case, police may stop looking
- UGC has made highly skilled professionals redundant
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- Over 33 million members in 40 different countries
- Launched in 1987 in US, 2012 in UK/Ireland
- Converged devices: Androids, Gaming Devices and Laptops
- Synergised: Paramount Pictures, MGM Pictures and Lionsgate Entertainment
- Economical and Social Contexts. Postmodernity - Fragmentation
- USP Initially - 1 Month Free Trial - 'Watch these titles now on Netflix'
- Non-diegetic music 'Oh how I want you'. Snippets, diegetic - 'You know what we do'
- What you want, when you want - simplistically effective
- Daniel Craig, Daniel Radcliffe, Emily Blunt (UK and Ireland Advert)
- 26 films (21 Jump Street, Drive, CwaCoM) and T.V Shows (Heroes, Breaking Bad)
- Gunshot, Ends with Iron Man 2 < Red, backdrop for Netflix
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- Nuclear, happy, middle-class family choosing what to watch on Netflix < Aspirational
- No commitments, Interactive - 'Start your free month'
- Smart TV with a wide variety of movies on display.
- 4.1/5 rating - lack of sound, freezing, no parental controls
- Free App for customers = Addiction > Unhealthy Lifestyle
Netflix Facebook Page:
- The Flixies
- Frequent updates of content. Almost 4 million likes
- 'What can we help you with?' < Inviting
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- Launched in 2002 in UK. An Amazon Company
- Online viewing is free (rental/streaming). Amazon: world's largest online retailer
- Jan 2011: 32% > 100%
- Devices + Broadcast (iPad, PC..)
- Emphasises easy use
- Snippets - The Other Guys, Salt 'You're Good'
- 'Britain's largest range of films and games -7,000 titles and counting'
- Bad teacher, Dexter, TBBT covers
- White background, red 'love' and '.com'
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- 1989 online < first store in 2004
- Customers can order online and collect
- 'Netflix filed suit in 2006, alleging Blockbuster copied methods for video rental orders.' -Marketwatch. Netflix recorded a settlement payment of $4.1 million.
- Morrisons buy 49 Blockbuster stores
- In January, Blockbuster closed their UK stores putting over 4,000 jobs at risk
- Filed for bankruptcy in 2010
- Only 600,00 likes
- Polls for favourite movies and comments
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- Hall: Polysemic texts, 'The meaning is not in the text but in the reading.'
- Fiske (1982): Audiences have a tendency to read connotations as self-evident truths
- Connotations of Red: Passion, Desire, Energy and Power
- UGC: Forum on website
- Uses and Gratification Theory: Entertainment/ Personal Identity/ Information/ Integration and Social Interaction.
- Proliferation: Spreading on Converged devices
- Park et al: Delinquents who watch more violent T.V are more aggressive.
- Mark Thompson: 'Martini Media' 'any time, any place, anywhere' 2007, iPlayer
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Issues and Debates
- Del Sola Poole: New media will facilitate a range of texts
- Lazy and Unsociable or discourse providing?
- Adorno and the Frankfurt school: The effect of celebrities
- Liberal Pluralism (choice) and Market Liberalism (preference affects texts produced)
- Media Effect Theory, Social Learning Perspective, Desensitisation
- Stacey: audiences gain pleasure by using celebrities as an escape
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- 1 in 6 people illegally download and stream
- In 2011 the fewest tickets were sold since 1995 - Time: Business and Money
- Going to the cinema is a social activity and part of modern culture
- James Bulger's death caused by Child's Play 3? -1993
- Parental Controls: added after complaints on forum.
- As of November 2012, you can adjust parental controls from a computer only. It takes 8 hours to apply to all devices.
- Unemployment rates are high in young adults who are the target audience.
- People prefer to illegally download because it is free; the internet creates a sense of anonymity in which criminals feel they won't be caught.
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