Media Studies A2

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  • Created by: Anjalee
  • Created on: 02-06-13 16:36

Issues and Debates

  • Mass-Amateurisation/Citizen Journalism: Blogs, YouTube = Professionals out of work.
  • Adorno and the Frankfurt School (1991) : Charismatic celebrities may have either positive or negative outcomes on the public.
  • Constructionist View of Representation: Knowledge is constructed by representations.
  • Reflective View of Representation: Media narrative and language reflects reality.
  • Cultural Imperialism: One country dominates others' consumption and ideologies
  • Giddens (2003): We live in a 'runaway world' where cultures, economies and politics appear to merge across national borders.
  • Herman and Chomsky: 'Manufacturing consent' filters available information, controlling audiences.
  • Gramsci: Repeated representations in the media become dominant ideologies, such as the middle class in power.
  • Contexts: Social (To entertain), Economic (To make a profit), Historical (Background of the text).
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Issues and Debates

  • Habermas:(1991): Focus in the media is mainly on celebrities, ignoring political opinions and debates on government action.
  • Danny Miller: Viewers use texts to explore social and moral contradictions in their own society.
  • Cultural Concern: An issue that sociery or culture becomes preoccupied with or worried about.
  • Mcluhan: The medium is the message which influences society.
  • On Demand: No 9pm Watershed.
  • Facebook was questioned after comments on wall's were considered public invading their privacy policy.
  • The Cultivation Perspective: Watching a range of similar media texts reflects a misinterpretation of reality.
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Theories

  • Auteur Theory: The director is the author of their film expressing individual style.
  • Barthes Myths (1967):A culture repeats frequently told stories to convey dominant ideologies.
  • Barthes Narrative Codes (1974): -Action codes: audiences are involved by following the details of a plot. -Enigmatic Codes -Symbolic Codes: identification.
  • Binary oppositions
  • Hall: -Decoding and Encoding model emphasising audience interpretation. -The meaning is in the audience reading.
  • Indexical Signs: Assumes a relationship between the signifier and signified.
  • Structuralism: Using a semiotic perspective, media texts can be analysed as languages or signifying systems.
  • Neale: Pleasure comes with difference.
  • Paradigm: A set of signs which producers can choose from to create their text.
  • Syntagm: A new meaning from the added signs. Central to creating genre.
  • Poststructuralism: Emphasises the range of interpretations within a text.
  • Queer Theory: Rejects conventional expressions of behaviour.
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Theories

  • Saussure (1983): -Syntactic level: denotation of text. -Representational level: representations conveyed. -Symbolic level: hidden cultural meaning.
  • Scopophilia: The pleasure of looking at people secretly.
  • Semiotics: The study of codes and languages and the signs from which they are made.
  • Signified: Idea, meaning or concept represented by signifier.
  • Signifier: The visible part of a sign such as image.
  • Market-Liberalism: Politically conservative perspective stressing the power of audience over media producers. Audience preference decides which media texts are produced.
  • Voyeurism: Gaining pleasure from watching, especially secretly, other people's behaviour 
  • Fiske: There is a tendency to read connotations as if they were self-truths.
  • Social Learning Theory: Bandura's Bobo Doll Experiment: Human behaviour is learnt by imitating behaviour.
  • Morley (1980): -Dominant Reading: Preferred reading -Negotiated Reading: Audience shares some embedded ideologies. -Oppositional Reading: Audience reject preferred reading.
  • Liberal Pluralism: Media audiences select and choose media texts.
  • Two step flow theory: semi-active theory where opinion leaders spread the word about media texts and people share this information.
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News Values and Bias

  • Timeliness: Current
  • Proximity: Local Information
  • Conflict and Controversy: Violence
  • Human Interest: Unusual or Identifiable
  • Relevance: Helps make decisions
  • Elite Nations or People
  • Personality: Celebrities

Bias:

  • Story Selection: Ignores stories coinciding with opposite view.
  • Placement: Importance of news story.
  • Spin: One interpretation of an event or policy.
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Wider Context

  • In 2009, 95% of music downloads were illegal -The Guardia, Jan 2009
  • In 2011, the fewest cinema tickets since 1995 were sold" -Time: Business and Money, Jan 2012
  • "Glossy magazines can give you anorexia" -Daily Mail, May 2012
  • "Most illegal downloaders are being tracked" -The Telegraph, Sept 2012
  • "Children damaged by online **** at age 11" -The Metro, Oct 2012
  • "Nine are fined for revealing **** victim online" -The Metro, Nov 2012
  • "One in six download and streams illegally" -The Metro, Nov 2012
  • "Gangnam up on them all" -The Metro, Dec 2012
  • "Social networking sites are being used to move children" -The Metro, Jan 2013
  • "Miss Vogue recieves cautious welcome from health campaigners" -The Guardian, Jan 2013
  • "A smartphone that turns into a mini cinema" HTC One -The Metro, Feb 2013
  • "Courts ban pirate sites from use" after shutting down The Pirate Bay -The Metro, Feb 2013
  • "I left him playing COD then he was dead" -The Metro, Feb 2013
  • "Police use drunk's satnav to find home-alone child" -The Metro, March 2013
  • "Cyber crooks use fake keypads to get people's pin numbers" -The Metro, March 2013
  • 60% of the UK population own a smartphone in 2013 -NewMedia TrendWatch
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Wider Context

  • The Columbine Incident 1999, Klebold and Harris
  • The Virginia Tech Massacre 2007, Cho
  • The Batman Shootings 2012, Holmes > The Gangster Squad film
  • Iranian Presidential Elections 2009, Twitter increased the amount of coverage
  • James Bulger's death caused by Child's Play 3? 1993
  • Argo: USA are superior to Iran. Iranians are seen as hostile
  • Broadchurch: Newspaper stories are constructed. Unless there is a high profile case, police may stop looking
  • UGC has made highly skilled professionals redundant
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Netflix

General Information:

  • Over 33 million members in 40 different countries
  • Launched in 1987 in US, 2012 in UK/Ireland
  • £5.99/month
  • NewOnNetflix
  • Converged devices: Androids, Gaming Devices and Laptops
  • Synergised: Paramount Pictures, MGM Pictures and Lionsgate Entertainment
  • Economical and Social Contexts. Postmodernity - Fragmentation

Broadcast Advert:

  • USP Initially - 1 Month Free Trial - 'Watch these titles now on Netflix'
  • Non-diegetic music 'Oh how I want you'. Snippets, diegetic - 'You know what we do'
  • What you want, when you want - simplistically effective
  • Daniel Craig, Daniel Radcliffe, Emily Blunt (UK and Ireland Advert)
  • 26 films (21 Jump Street, Drive, CwaCoM) and T.V Shows (Heroes, Breaking Bad)
  • Gunshot, Ends with Iron Man 2 < Red, backdrop for Netflix
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Netflix

Netflix Website:

  • Nuclear, happy, middle-class family choosing what to watch on Netflix < Aspirational 
  • No commitments, Interactive - 'Start your free month' 
  • Smart TV with a wide variety of movies on display.

Netflix App:

  • 4.1/5 rating - lack of sound, freezing, no parental controls
  • Free App for customers = Addiction > Unhealthy Lifestyle 

Netflix Facebook Page:

  • The Flixies  
  • Frequent updates of content. Almost 4 million likes 
  • 'What can we help you with?' < Inviting
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Lovefilm

General Information:

  • Launched in 2002 in UK. An Amazon Company
  • Online viewing is free (rental/streaming). Amazon: world's largest online retailer
  • Jan 2011: 32% > 100%

Broadcast Advert:

  • Devices + Broadcast (iPad, PC..)
  • Emphasises easy use
  • Snippets - The Other Guys, Salt 'You're Good' 

Print:

  • 'Britain's largest range of films and games -7,000 titles and counting'
  • Bad teacher, Dexter, TBBT covers
  • White background, red 'love' and '.com'
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Blockbuster

General Information:

  • 1989 online < first store in 2004
  • Customers can order online and collect
  • 'Netflix filed suit in 2006, alleging Blockbuster copied methods for video rental orders.'              -Marketwatch. Netflix recorded a settlement payment of $4.1 million.
  • Morrisons buy 49 Blockbuster stores
  • In January, Blockbuster closed their UK stores putting over 4,000 jobs at risk
  • Filed for bankruptcy in 2010

Facebook Page:

  • Only 600,00 likes
  • Polls for favourite movies and comments
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Theories

  • Hall: Polysemic texts, 'The meaning is not in the text but in the reading.'
  • Fiske (1982): Audiences have a tendency to read connotations as self-evident truths
  • Connotations of Red: Passion, Desire, Energy and Power
  • UGC: Forum on website
  • Uses and Gratification Theory: Entertainment/ Personal Identity/ Information/ Integration and Social Interaction.
  • Proliferation: Spreading on Converged devices
  • Park et al: Delinquents who watch more violent T.V are more aggressive.
  • Mark Thompson: 'Martini Media' 'any time, any place, anywhere' 2007, iPlayer
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Issues and Debates

  • Del Sola Poole: New media will facilitate a range of texts
  • Lazy and Unsociable or discourse providing?
  • Adorno and the Frankfurt school: The effect of celebrities
  • Liberal Pluralism (choice) and Market Liberalism (preference affects texts produced)
  • Media Effect Theory, Social Learning Perspective, Desensitisation
  • Stacey: audiences gain pleasure by using celebrities as an escape
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Wider Context

  • 1 in 6 people illegally download and stream
  • In 2011 the fewest tickets were sold since 1995 - Time: Business and Money
  • Going to the cinema is a social activity and part of modern culture
  • James Bulger's death caused by Child's Play 3? -1993
  • Parental Controls: added after complaints on forum.
  • As of November 2012, you can adjust parental controls from a computer only. It takes 8 hours to apply to all devices.
  • Unemployment rates are high in young adults who are the target audience.
  • People prefer to illegally download because it is free; the internet creates a sense of anonymity in which criminals feel they won't be caught.
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