Media Studies


Advanced Terminology

 Encoding= what companies want to convey to their audience. 

Decoding= what we think of an item of media.

Mediation= how the media has been constructed- the edited image.

Countertype= media that is delibratly going against the stereotypes.

Ideology = the message in the text- what is it?

Hegemony= the main message people choose to believe- men paired with women.

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Representation- Things to look for!

  • Who is being represented?
  • How is the reprentation of media constructed and used?
  • How are Stereotypes used?
  • Who is in control of the representation and why?- referring to company or media creator.
  • target audience & how they are interpret it?
  • What is the ideology of the text?

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Camera Shots

  • Long Shot= A shot which contains a lot of infomation- allowing the audience to the the character and location.
  • The Mid Shot= clearly identifies the character and parts of the location.
  • Establishing Shot= establishes the whole location.
  • The Extreme Close Up= the audience see a small part of the characters face.


  • High Angle= audience views the subject from above
  • Low Angle= looking upwards toward character in the shot.
  • Eye level=as if you are there.
  • Point of View= as the character views it.
  • Birds eye View= view from above.
  • the close up= zoom in on characters face to focus on detail.
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Specific Case Studies

Age- Phil Dunphy “I’m a cool dad” this is an example of a non-stereotypical dad. Irresponsible behaviour. Refers   to his son as “dude”

Luke- stereotypical childish brother- he gets his head stuck in the banister.

Events- the case of nelson Mandela’s death- the sun “president of the world” His death was suggested to be a global event which shows he was an important figure internationally. States his significance to the world

Ethnicity-“we fight and make love”- Gloria is stereotypical Columbian attitude toward life. Fiery spirit and passionate about what she believes.

Region and Nationality- Billy Elliot is set in north east- Mise-en-scene shows terraced houses and bordered up windows stereotypical reference to everyday northern working class life (poor)

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Specific Case Studies 2

Gender- Men’s Health magazine represents men as muscular and fit. This is a stereotypical way to present typical modern men. They do not make eye contact with the reader to show that they are self-indulged. Women’s health generally have fit young attractive women with flat toned stomachs.

Manny in Modern Family- SUBVERTS the STEREOTYPE as he is in touch with his feminine side. He does not like football but writes poetry instead. He is thoughtful and kind to everyone and does not have the STEREOTYPICAL physic.

Issues- young people driving. Hayley, a Stereotypical girly girl takes her first driving lesson. Relatable for a teenage audience as they are going through the same issues as the character.

Children questioning their sexuality- Billy’s friend dresses up in his sisters clothes.

Billy wants to pursue a career in dance even though he is a boy. 

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