- hypodermic needle theory: the media influences us directly and we are affected by what we see and hear. no attempt to process or challenge the media.
- two step flow: this is where we discuss what we see and hear with others (opinion leaders) before reaching decisions about it
- uses and gratifications: audience now made choices about what media they consumed. actively consuming different texts for different reasons.
- reception theory: even further than actively ocnsuming texts, audiences are now also affected by other factors such as age, ethnicity etc. the producer encodes the text, and the audience decode, so there is a difference between them. however codes and conventions are used to create a dominant/preffered reading.
The most common factors of representation;
- AGE: stereotypes - young people: lazy, rude, immature, selfish, violent
- old people: grumpy, slow, boring, miserable
media texts can use or challenge these stereotypes.
The problem comes from a youth-obsessed media that worships beauty (associated with youth)
and devalues wisdom and experience (associated with age).
There seems to be unspoken agreement amongst magazine editors (in print and online) that we prefer to look at images of young, smooth-skinned models in connection with both advertising and editorial copy.
- GENDER: stereotypes - women: pretty, beautiful, cook and clean, skinny
- men: muscly, strong, work hard, protective
gender is used to provide role models, women and men that we apsrie to be like.
but are they accurate stereotype's?
- ETHNICITY: race represntation is often based on social myth that has come around over the years. this type of representatino os often seen as offensive and can target certain ethnicities.
music video's are a huge influence on thiss. e.g. dizzee rascals music video for 'dance wiv me'. biggin' up black people, full of black characters, dancing with black girls and (clavin harris) white man behind the bar.