Children imitate high status/powerful models e.g. T.V. contains violence by these models.
What children see in everyday lives more likely to have an affect than few hours of T.V e.g. Homes with parental conflict
Influence of T.V. violence on
- Increased AROUSAL
- EXCITATION/AROUSAL TRANSFER to real life situations
- HUESMANN:- Desensitisation to violence
- We store SCRIPTS/MEMORIES of violent acts
- PRIMES watchers to behave similarly
- MURRAY et al:- violent acts are stored as EPISODIC memories
- HUESMANN:- LONGTITUDINAL study. 557 M + F aged 5 - 8. Asked what was their fav TV shows. 398 followed up in early 20's. INTERVIEWED those close. SIGNIFICANT CORRELATION between violent shows watched in childhood and REAL LIFE AGGRESSION.
Seems to suggest TV violence does have an effect. CORRELATION studies = just as likely violent people seek violent shows.
How much violence is actually on TV?
GUNTER & HARRISON:
Monitored 2084 programmes on 8 channels over 4 weeks
Violence occupied: 0.61% on terrestrial channels
1.53% on satellite channels
Only 19% of violence was on Children's programmes.
Violence represents only a tiny part of TV output
Effects of watching Pro-social behaviour
aged 8-12 given questionnaires on NORMAL TV WATCHING HABITS.
Randomly allocated to GROUP 1: 30 mins of Hang-time & 15 mins discussion
GROUP 2: watched 30 mins of Hang-time NO discussion
Group 1 improved scores on PRO-SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR
Watching and DICUSSING with an ADULT is KEY to benefit from Pro-social programming.
HIGH ECOLOGICAL VALIDITY. risk of DEMAND CHARACTERISTICS. PARENTAL CONSENT required.
Influences on Pro-social behaviour
4 different categories of pro-social behaviour:
- POSITIVE INTERACTION
Watching has a large effect on Altruism and Self-Control but only if EXPLICITLY MODELLED
Explanations of Inlfuences
Operant Conditioning. Rewarded behaviour is repeated.
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY:
BANDURA - Vicarious experience, we learn through OBSERVATION and MODELLING
SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY:
Develop SCRIPTS and SCHEMAs from watching
Although clear link between watching anti-social programming and aggression there are other influences. Plus pro-social programming is beneficial.
Influence of playing Violent ames
TAFALLA:- Increased heart rate & BP when "DOOM" game music playing. Transfer of arousal.
SHEESE & GRAZIANO:- Players of violent "Doom" choose to exploit rather than help.
INCREASED AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR/ COGNITIONS/ FEELINGS
UNSWORTH et al:- Only those already aggressive have changes in feeling before/after/during game
DESENSITISATION TO VIOLENCE
BARTHOLOW:- Evidence of reduced brain response in those used to game violence.
The General Aggression Model
ANDERSON et al:-
A model to explain INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES in vulnerability to violent exposure in games.
Such games increase AROUSAL, COGNITIONS and MOODS.
Effects depend on variables like EXPECTANCY BIAS:- belief others will act a certain way.
BUSHMAN & ANDERSON:-
participants given VIOLENT/NON-VIOLENT games to play. Then asked to complete SHORT STORIES.
Violent games group tended to complete stories with more AGGRESSIVE ENDINGS.
Positive effects of games
ENHANCED COGNITIVE ABILITIES:
DIN & CALAO:- Children's reading and spelling significantly improved after educational games
DEVELOPMENT OF SKILLS IN SPECIAL NEEDS:
POPE et al:- 6 SONY PlayStation's modified and linked to 9-13 yr old ADD sufferers. Both modified games and traditional brainwave techniques IMPROVED impulsiveness and school performance. However modified games group were more MOTIVATED.
IMPROVE SOCIAL SKILLS:
Players discuss tactics. Simulation games provide environment to learn social skills.
Playing appropriate games in moderation can be beneficial. causal link between aggression and game play inconclusive. But CAN lead to addiction.