Media Ownership and Control

Revision cards for the ownership and control section of A2 Mass Media - Sociology AQA

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Representations of Gender

Male Representations

Retributive Masculinity: Rutherford suggests that magazines including Zoo and Nuts convey traditional male interests such as "booze and bird" culture. There is a heavy emphasis on sport and the concept of metrosexuality is rejected.

Homosexual Stereotypes: Homosexuals are stereotyped into three categories (Craig 1992)-*Camp *Macho *Deviant.




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Portrayed as having fundamental life problems in need of resolution. However, some TV such as Queer as folk have been recognised as giving true to life portrayals.

Metrosexual Representation: This term refers to the advent of a new kind of male identity, where men recognise the importance of aesthetics and image. Some media representations show men as being emotionally in touch, and expressing more feminine behaviours.



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Female Representations

Female Empowerment: There has been a gradual increase in the portrayal women as being self determined, strong and intelligent. They use their beauty to manipulate men, however, this type of representations still sexualises women.

Females Victims of The Male Gaze: Women are seen as sexual objects, their natural assets are capitalised upon. Females are exposed for the pleasure of male voyeurism.

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Female Representations

Symbolic Annihilation (Tuchman): The achievements of women are undermined in the media due to reduced or complete lack of reporting. They are are not given the same status as men. This is particularly evident within sport and in children's TV.


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Disabled Stereotypes

Disabled Stereotypes (Barnes): Disabled people are portrayed within the media as objects of pity, and as individuals who are incapable of a subsistence or even affluent living. They are demonised for their visual aesthetic which can sometimes appear unsettling and their capabilities are thought to be negligible.

Furthermore, they are seen as an economic and social burden as a result of their handicap and sympathy is usually limited to telefons.

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