The idea that the viewer tries to create meaning of an event, and try to make sense of the situation due to the mise en scene.
For example, Lev Kuleshov observed an audience of a short film, they percieved the actor to have 3 different emotions from 1 facial expression: hungry, sad and lustful.
This is due to different objects the actor was faced with: food, a dead child and a naked woman.
Therefore, we piece together the information presented attempt to understand the circumstance
This helps the audience access the storyline and engages them as the media has a familiar structure.
Conventional narratives are structured in 5 stages:
1) A state of equalibrium or peace is apparent
2) A disruption occurs due to an action or event
3) The recognition of the change caused by the disruption
4) An attempt to repair the disruption
5) Reinforcement of the equalibrium
Characters in a narrative Process of a narrative
Hero - character that seeks something Event e.g.- rule is imposed
Villian - prevents hero's quest Complication e.g.- state of disorder
Donor - provides hero with something Transference e.g.- hero leaves home
Dispatcher - sneds hero on quest Struggle e.g.- battle between hero and villain
False hero - disrupts hero's success Return e.g.- task is accomplished
Helper - aids the hero
Princess - hero's reward
Her father - provides the hero with the reward
The idea that binary opposites or conflicts are key to create interest, this is usually shown between good and bad or rather diverse subjects.
females vs males
angels vs demons
humans vs aliens
love vs hate
Uses and Gratifications Theory
The theory of why people use media and what they should gain from it.
Media should fulfil either:
Identification - to recognise and understand character or situations presented
Education - to learn and acquire knowledge
Entertainment - for enjoyment and 'escapism' to avoid personal worries or issues
Social Interaction - it can spark debates between those who have observed the same media text
Hypodermic Needle Theory
The theory that ideas are fired into a passive audience's / listener's minds and they are immediately influenced.
This can increase the popularity of a media and is good for advertisements
Mass media can influence large numbers of people, however not necessarily for good, for example Nazi propaganda