Kahne et al (2008)
The majority of those listing The Sims as a favourite game said they learned about problems in society and social issues while playing video games.
- Self-report techniques
- Choice of game themselves not random allocation - we don't know prosocial behaviour prior to game play
- Prosocial games less likely to be produced as they sell less
- Certain personality more likely to get more out of a game
Anderson et al (2007)
Longitudinal study showed those with high exposure to violent games were more aggressive in 430 7-9 year olds. This was rated by them and those around them.
- Self-report rather than observation
- Ratings subjective to individuals
- Fairly large sample size
- Longitudinal study showing long-term effects
- May have been affected by other media (e.g. TV)
- Certain personality/family select/allow violent games
- Dominick (1984) - Explained by reduced empathy, created by treating other humans as targets
The Hovland-Yale Model - Hovland et al (1953)
Source: Experts more credible than non experts. Attractive communicators more attractive.
Message: More effective if we think persuasion unintended. Moderate fear most effective.
Audience: Older children more understanding of persuasive intent. Moderate intelligence most easily persuaded. Moderate self-esteem most easily persuaded.
- Those with lower self-esteem are less attentive, those with higher have stronger self-belief (McGuire et al, 1968)
- Much Hovland research done on students and army personell, so may not be generalisable
- Celebrity endorsements not particularly convincing/believable (O'Mahony and Meenaghan, 1997)
- ICE campaign in Australia (2004) - Moderate fear through explicit images warning against drugs effective in 78% of 13-24 year olds
- Lack of historical validity - media constantly changing
The Elaboration-Likelihood Model - Petty and Cacio
Message is either taken by central or peripheral route.
Central route: Audience thinks about message, focus on argument, lasting attitude change.
Peripheral route: Audience thinks about context of message, focus on peripheral factors, temporary attitude change.
- Knowledge of demographics can guide internet marketers to design appropriate promotional materials
- Those with higher need for cognition focus on fact-based messages (Vidrine et al, 2007)
- We rely on time-efficient strategies, so may take the peripheral route if message is not personally important (Taylor, 1984)
Snyder and DeBono (1985)
People scoring highly on a test of self-monitoring (image consciousness) preferred soft-sell advertising (less factual, more creative).
- Women may be more image conscious, so it may be that women are more influenced by soft-sell
- Hard-sell advertisements more believable, soft-sell produces more positive attitudes to product - both are effective
- Self-report technique
- Persuasiveness measured on 'liking' rather than purchase
Meta-analysis showed strong, positive correlation between age and understanding of persuasive intent. Older children could discriminate between adverts and TV programmes.
- Meta-analysis takes into account multiple studies - more reliable
- Correlation doesn't show cause and effect
- Parents may act as mediators between adverts and behaviour, perhaps more in older children as they are able to understand more
Pine and Nash (2001)
In Sweden, TV advertising aimed at under 12s is illegal. There were significantly fewer christmas gift requests from Swedish children than in the US.
- Cultural bias - values to do with christmas may be different in different cultures
- Parents may be more effective mediators in Sweden
- US children may be more influenced by peer pressure
Advertisers embed commercials in TV programmes showing violence and sex. However, these themes may impair memory.
- The 18-34 age bracket is targeted - more susceptible to commercial influence, less established spending habits, more disposable income
- TV ads may be better remembered if there is a congruence between ad and programme content, due to the motivations for watching (Bushman, 2007)
- 80% of TV viewers are likely to leave the room during adverts