Media Mock

  • Created by: Rosie
  • Created on: 17-03-15 16:47

Kahne et al (2008)

The majority of those listing The Sims as a favourite game said they learned about problems in society and social issues while playing video games.


  • Self-report techniques
  • Choice of game themselves not random allocation - we don't know prosocial behaviour prior to game play
  • Prosocial games less likely to be produced as they sell less
  • Certain personality more likely to get more out of a game
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Anderson et al (2007)

Longitudinal study showed those with high exposure to violent games were more aggressive in 430 7-9 year olds. This was rated by them and those around them.


  • Self-report rather than observation
  • Ratings subjective to individuals
  • Fairly large sample size
  • Longitudinal study showing long-term effects
  • May have been affected by other media (e.g. TV)
  • Certain personality/family select/allow violent games
  • Dominick (1984) - Explained by reduced empathy, created by treating other humans as targets
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The Hovland-Yale Model - Hovland et al (1953)

Source: Experts more credible than non experts. Attractive communicators more attractive.

Message: More effective if we think persuasion unintended. Moderate fear most effective.

Audience: Older children more understanding of persuasive intent. Moderate intelligence most easily persuaded. Moderate self-esteem most easily persuaded.


  • Those with lower self-esteem are less attentive, those with higher have stronger self-belief (McGuire et al, 1968)
  • Much Hovland research done on students and army personell, so may not be generalisable
  • Celebrity endorsements not particularly convincing/believable (O'Mahony and Meenaghan, 1997)
  • ICE campaign in Australia (2004) - Moderate fear through explicit images warning against drugs effective in 78% of 13-24 year olds
  • Lack of historical validity - media constantly changing
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The Elaboration-Likelihood Model - Petty and Cacio

Message is either taken by central or peripheral route.

Central route: Audience thinks about message, focus on argument, lasting attitude change.

Peripheral route: Audience thinks about context of message, focus on peripheral factors, temporary attitude change.


  • Knowledge of demographics can guide internet marketers to design appropriate promotional materials
  • Those with higher need for cognition focus on fact-based messages (Vidrine et al, 2007)
  • We rely on time-efficient strategies, so may take the peripheral route if message is not personally important (Taylor, 1984)
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Snyder and DeBono (1985)

People scoring highly on a test of self-monitoring (image consciousness) preferred soft-sell advertising (less factual, more creative).


  • Women may be more image conscious, so it may be that women are more influenced by soft-sell
  • Hard-sell advertisements more believable, soft-sell produces more positive attitudes to product - both are effective
  • Self-report technique
  • Persuasiveness measured on 'liking' rather than purchase
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Martin (1997)

Meta-analysis showed strong, positive correlation between age and understanding of persuasive intent. Older children could discriminate between adverts and TV programmes.


  • Meta-analysis takes into account multiple studies - more reliable
  • Correlation doesn't show cause and effect
  • Parents may act as mediators between adverts and behaviour, perhaps more in older children as they are able to understand more
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Pine and Nash (2001)

In Sweden, TV advertising aimed at under 12s is illegal. There were significantly fewer christmas gift requests from Swedish children than in the US.


  • Cultural bias - values to do with christmas may be different in different cultures
  • Parents may be more effective mediators in Sweden
  • US children may be more influenced by peer pressure
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Bushman (2005)

Advertisers embed commercials in TV programmes showing violence and sex. However, these themes may impair memory.


  • The 18-34 age bracket is targeted - more susceptible to commercial influence, less established spending habits, more disposable income
  • TV ads may be better remembered if there is a congruence between ad and programme content, due to the motivations for watching (Bushman, 2007)
  • 80% of TV viewers are likely to leave the room during adverts
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