Media AS OCR (Section B)

  • Created by: Vee
  • Created on: 08-01-13 14:04

Key Terms

Vertical Intagration - when a company does all stages of the film, distribution and production e.g. 20th Century Fox

Horizontal Intagration - when a company has many different arms to their company e.g. Universal has a music label (Universal Music Group) , television channels (NBC-Universal) and film (Universal Pictures)

Oligopoly - a state of limited competition, in which a market is shared by a small number of producers and sellers i.e. the film industry is dominated by major companies (e.g. Universal)

Conglomerate - companies that contribute to all aspects of the media (music, television, film, newspaper)

Synergy - when two or more companies work together to benefit one another e.g. McDonalds giving away free toys in their meals 

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The Production Process

Pre Production - the idea for the film is developed and the cast and crew are found and financing is put in place. The largest source of funding in Britain was the UK Film Council (however it was abolished in 2011)

Sources of film finance in Britain: UK film companies e.g. BBC films and filmfour, Pre-salesGap finance.

Sources of film finance outside Britain: Stars: ceratin actors such as Tom Cruise, fund movies using their own production companies, Locality funds, television companies, independant producers,  Angels (people who likw your idea with money to spend), and 'DIY' (private investment from family and friends).

Production - The actual shooting of the film

Post Production - editing of the footage, the addition of sound as required, including any original music, and the addition of special effects and computer generated effects

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The Hollywood Film Industry

Estblished industry



Vertically and Horizontally integrated

International Brands e.g. Universal, 20th Century Fox, Disney, Warner Bros, MGM, Paramount

BIG BUDGET films, MAINSTREAM films, BLOCKBUSTER films, star system

International, national and local audiences, consumers, prosumers

Digital distribution

new media technologies

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The British Film Industry

no mature industry that is not vertically or horizontally integrated

5,000 sperate production companies

Difficult to find funding and distributors for films, if a film has no distributor it is nearly impossible to market the film due to lack of money

most films are co-productions

BFI produces funding which is propped up by lottery funding

Low Budget Films

Social Realist films

Niche, specialist, national but usually local audiences audiences

Largely unknown actors

have had some successful films abroad, especially America

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Second oldest studio in Hollywood


Owned by Genral Electric and Comcast

Indie arm - Focus Features

Vertically and Horizontally integrated - distribute their own films

Parent company to: Working Title and Illumation Entertainment

Distributed Despicable Me and Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy (eventually)

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Working Title

British film production company

Run by Tim Bevan and Eric Fellner

Parent company is Universal - invest in marketing films internationally, especially ones with mass audience appeal

Budget - up to £35 million (Johnny English Reborn was £45 million)

Has made several successful films e.g. Bridget Jones' Diary, Notting Hill

Have started to make more niche films aimed at specialist audiences e.g. Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy

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Despicable Me

Budget - $69 million

Gross - $543,113,985

Director: Pierre Coffin

Producer: Chris Meledandri

Stars: Steve Carell, Julie Andrews, Russel Brand

Distributed by Universal

Produced by IBM and Illumation Entertainment, who collaberated with Mac Guff Ligne (Paris based digital production studio)

Generated 142 terabytes of data

Took 3 years to make (average is 5-7 years)

Saved money whereever possible i.e. re-used elements from scenes and eliminated details like animal fur


Relied heavily on on Universal's arms and was promoted on several NBC-Uinversal Channels (vertical intagration).

Collaberated with IHOP who made cupcakes with the popular characers the 'miniums'.

Created mobil phone apps (convergence)

online campaigne - interactive trailers, social networking

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London To Brighton

Written/Directed/Produced by: Paul Williams

Budget: £500,000 - used cheap digital cameras to save money

Filmed on location

Gross: £6.5 million

Unknown cast e.g. Georgia Groome

Genre: Social Realism

Audience: Local - Niche

Distribution: Film festivals, posters

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Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy

Directed by: Tomas Alfredson

Budget: £20 million

Gross: £35 million

Stars: Colin Firth, Gary Oldman (Famous British)

Poduced by: Working Title

3 months to film, and 6 months to edit

Genre: Spy

Audience: National

Universal distributed it in America after they realised how popular it was

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Written/Directed/Produced: James Cameron

Budget: $237 million - money was not an issue

Gross: $2.5 billion - highest grossing film

Distribution/Production Company: 20th Century Fox

Audience: International

Actors had to be trained to get the right physicality for their character and the language

Took over a year and a half just to make props and costumes


Rated PG-13 by the bbfc - wide target audience

Colloaberated with Coca-Cola to launch a worldwide marketing promotion (synergy)

Shown in 3D

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