Cinematography, lighting effects, colour, sound, Editing, Mis-en-scene

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  • Closed framing- clostraphobia, danger, madness
  • Open frames- freedom and adventure
  • Framing can define status
    - Foregrounding
    - Using right (dominant) position
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Lighting creates different emotions and effects

  • Low key- creates shadows and contrasts (chiaroscuro), mystery,danger + secrecy,shadows can enhance isolation.
  • Light sources- conventional lighting used the 3 point system (key,fill,back)
    - using light from one source can create various emotions and moods
    - used to focus on objects or characters
  • Lighting effects
    - Over head lighting: Hard
    - Sidelighting: Hard
    - Backlighting: Soft
    - Underlighting: Soft
    - Front lighting: Soft
    - Hard lighting throws defined shadows + creates sharp edges + textures
    - Soft lighting is more defused and romantic
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  • Diegetic- sound within the film world
  • Nondiegetic- sound outside the film world, Music, Narration

    Split sound into 3 areas

  • Dialogue- language,status,accents
  • Sound effects- tone, echo, point of view
  • Music- dramatic effect

    + Contrapuntal sound- contrast between what we see and hear
    Sound bridges- Continuity from one scene to the next
    Silence- Can create fear, loss, isolation
    - Sounds fade out, fade up or fase into one another
    - Silence can create a dramatic effect

  • Colour effects from lighting can reflect inner emotions of a character
  • Can add mood to a location
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Editing forms a specific language by juxtaposing (placing together) images + makes sense of time and space in narratives. Audience automatically read editing.


  • Fade in- usually from a black screen, intro to a scene
  • Fade out- Fade to black, signifys an end
  • Wipe- One image wipes another across the screen, over taking it
  • Dissolve- One image fades into another signifying time passing


  • Editing- can create a frantic/calm mood
  • Quick cuts- can create confusion or excitement,panic, urgency
  • Long takes- relaxing or happy, exploring
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Editing + Cinematography

Editing + Cinematography
Editing works with cam work to reveal direct attention to or study elements of a film. E.g. A cutaway to a Close up on an object may be significant or symbolic.

By using various techniques of editing narratives are constructed and interpreted by audiences
By using tech codes and conventions editing has developed into a recognisable language in itself.

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Mis-en-scene: 'All in the scene'

Definition: a series of elements of film construction that can be seen within the frame of the individual shot

  • Settings: interiors, exteriors, landscapes,insitutions
  • Lighting- 3 point,low key + high contrast
  • Performance + movement- Body language, proximity, appearance, head movement + facial expressions, gestures, eye contact + aspects of speech.
  • Costume + Props- dress codes, as symbols + as characters

Consider how they create meaning

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Camera angles

  • High angles- submissive, godlike
  • ECU/Macroshot
  • Parallel framing- even on both sides
  • Canted/tilted- chaos, confusion
  • Establishing shot/Ext
  • Long shot
  • Medium shot- waiste up
  • Close up
  • Over the shoulder
  • Two shot- 2 people in the frame
  • Point of view shot
  • Shot reverse shot- conversation to concentrate on dialogue
  • Camera movement
    - A track
    - A pan
    - A tilt Shots can linger on a person to show reaction
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