- Celebrity Attitude Scale (CAS) - lows scores = individual behaviour, high scores = obsession.
- Cheung and Yue (2003): in a survey of 833 Chinese teenagers, 'idol worship' associated with lower levels of work/study, lower self esteem.
- Phillips (1974): high profile celebrity suicides lead to increased suicide in general population.
- Persistant attempts to impose unwanted communication and/or contact on another person.
- 1/5 develop a 'love obsession' or 'fixation', suffer dellusional thought patterns and mental disorders.
- More common - having previous personal or romantic relationship existed before.
- Dressing et al., (2005): survey in Germany - 11.5% had been stalked, physical effects such as agitatio, anxiety, sleep disturbance and depression.
- Cyberstalking - attractive as less risk.
Influence of Attitudes of Decision Making
Cognitive Dissonance Theory - Festinger (1957)
- When people perceive themselves as having acted in a way that is contrary to their underlying beliefs and attitudes, so try reduce this dissonance by modifying their attitude to fit.
- Changing attitude/belief reduces dissonance and restores consistency.
- Festinger and Carlsmith (1959): monotomous task for an hour, pps then had to explain how interesting or boring it was.
- those paid $20 were more likely to say it was boring, those paid $1 were more likely to say it was interesting (as they changed their beliefs to fit their actions - to reduce dissonance).
Self Perception Theory - Bem (1967)
- Attitude follows behaviour.
- Argues that people infer their attitudes, emotions, etc. by observing their own behaviour.
- carried out 'Festinger and Carlsmith' type experiment, this time pps listened to a man enthusiastically describing a boring task.
- those told he was paid $1 said he had really enjoyed the task, the mans positive attitude was determined by his own self-perception.
The Attraction of Celebrity
- Attraction to creative individuals - humans possess love of novelty,
- novelty seeking tendencies correlate with enzyme MAOA, may be a genetic basis?
- Celebrity Gossip - the exchange of information about others socially.
- De Backer (2005): gossip creates bands.
- Barkow (1992): our minds think media characters are part of our social network.
- Parasocial Relationships - where an individual is attracted to another individual but the other is unaware of their existance.
- Schiappa et al., (2007): meta-analysis, parasocial relationships are most likely to form with TV celebrities who are seen as attractive and similar to the viewer.
- The 'Absorption-Addiction Model' - addiction leads a person to more extreme behaviours in order to sustain satisfaction with the relationship they have developed; entertainment social (fans are attracted to a celebrity because of their entertainment ability), intense-personal (intensive and compulsive feelings about them), borderline-pathological (uncontrollable behaviours and fantasies).
Video Games and Aggression
- Experimental Studies...allow causal relationships
- Gentile and Stone (2005): lab experiment, video games lead to short term increases in physiological arousal, hostile feelings and aggressive behaviour.
- cannot measure aggression (would be unethical), experimental studies measure short-term effects only.
- Correlational Studies...can measure 'real-life' aggression and long-term effects
- Gentile and Anderson (2003): 600 adolescents, found time spent playing violent video games was associated with aggressive feelings, arguments with teachers and more physical fights.
- cause cannot be determined.
- Longitudinal Studies...can examine short-term and long-term effects
- Ihori et al., (2003): 800 Japanese 9-10 year olds surveyed twce during school year, amount of video game played was then later associated with physical aggression, but not vice versa.
- pps may be exposed to other forms of media violence throughout the year - making it difficult to measure what comes from video games.
Explanations of Media Influences on Anti-social Be
Huesmann and Moise (1966) suggested 5 ways that exposue to media violence may lead to aggression in children:
Observational Learning and Imitation
- Social Learning Theory supports view that children learn specific acts of aggression through imitating models.
- bobo dolls
- Activation of existing thought and feelings.
- Explains why children witness one aggressive act on TV but repeat another.
- Josephson (1987): hockey players were deliberately frustrated then shown a violence or non-violent film and in the next game they played more aggressively if shown the violent video.
- Cumberbatch (2001): people might get 'used' to screen violence but this does not apply to the real world.
Lowered Physiological Arousal
- Like desensitisation, violence becomes less effective so seems less of a problem.
- Violent behaviours on TV may provide a justification for a childs violent behaviour.
- Liss and Reinhardt (1979): mixing pro-social and anti-social messages is bad, use of aggression by pro-social characters leads to a moral justification.
* gender bias, demand characteristics
Persuasion and Attitude Change
Hovland-Yale Model of Attitude Change
Source (who) --> Message (what) --> Audience (whom)
- Experts are more credible, popular and attractive sources: more effective.
- Morton and Campbell (2008): children received information about an autistic child from many sources and found children reported more favourable attitudes when infomation was provided by an expert.
- When thought message is not intended to persuade, when creating a moderate level of fear: more effective.
- Lewis et al., (2008): fear arousing messages were most effective after immediate exposure but long-term attitude change was more likely with positive campaigns.
- Low and high intelligence less effected.
- Igartua et al., (2003): audience with high involvement react different than those with low involvement.
* can't generalise (samples usually students - age, health, wealth not of general population).
* lacks mundane realism (as experimenters reduce variables).
Elaboration-likelihood Model of Attitude Change
Central Route to Persuasion
- Used is audience is more likely to focus on arguments.
- Audience motivated to think about the message --> focus on quality of arguments --> lasting attitude change.
- Cacioppo and Petty (1982): some people enjoy analysing arguments (high need for cognition.
Peripheral Route to Persuasion
- Used if audience is likely to focus on context of the message than the message itself.
- Audience not motivated to think about the message --> focus on peripheral factors --> temporary attitude change.
- Fiske and Taylor (1984): most people are 'cognitive misers' (use simple and time efficient strategies when making decisions).
* real-life application: Vidrine et al., (2007): 227 student smokers, given a fact based leaflet on smoking, high NC responded; given an emotion based leaflet on smoking, low NC responded.
* gener bias - studies show women are more susceptible to persuasive communications.