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- Created on: 29-05-19 10:46
•Connotating meanings e.g. red = love ect •Also talks about enigma codes
•All narratives hold the same structure that involves one equilibrium to another (resolution) •states of equilibrium are separated by a period of imbalance or disequilibrium •narratives are resolved can have particular ideological significance
•Texts can be understood though an examination of underlying structure. •Binary oppositions create meanings and how these are resolved can have particular ideological significance. Eg good vs evil
•boundaries between the ‘real’ world and the media have collapsed and it is harder to distinguish between reality and simulation. •we are absorbed in a world of images which no longer refer to anything ‘real’ the idea that these images seem more ‘real’ than the reality they represent (hyperreality).
•Repetition of stereotypical conventions creates genre •but are also marked by difference, variation, and change •genres change, develop, and vary, as they borrow from and overlap with one another – creating hybrid genres
•representation is the production of meaning through language defined in a system of signs •the idea that the relationship between concepts and signs is governed by codes e.g. camera shot , diagetic music ect •stereotyping, as a form of representation, reduces people to a few simple characteristics or traits •stereotyping tends to occur where there are inequalities of power, as subordinate or excluded groups are constructed as different or ‘other’ e.g.ethnicity
•Media allows us to construct our own identities •in the past the media tended to convey singular, straightforward messages about ideal types of male and female identities • now the media offers a more diverse range of stars, icons and characters from whom we may pick and mix different ideas.
•Gender is constructed though discourse •women’s bodies as objects to be looked at in western patriarchal society. •Women and males bodies shown differently. Women =objectify
•feminism is a struggle to end sexist/patriarchal oppression and the ideology of domination •feminism is a political commitment rather than a lifestyle choice •race and class as well as sex determine the extent to which individuals are exploited, discriminated against or oppressed.
•Gender is socially constructed not biologically fixed.
•performativity is not a singular act, but a repetition and a ritual this reinforces gender stereotypes and gender as a performance.
•colonial discourses continue to inform contemporary attitudes to race and ethnicity in the postcolonial era •civilisationism constructs racial hierarchies and sets up binary oppositions based on otherness.
Alvarado et al
4 common aspects in the representation of ethnic minorities shown as :
•exotic •dangerous •pitied •humorous.
Curran and seaton
•The media is controlled by a small number of companies driven by profit and power. • that media concentration generally limits or inhibits variety, creativity and quality •more socially diverse patterns of ownership help to create the conditions for more varied and adventurous media productions.
Livingstone and Lunt
•struggle in UK regulation between offering protection from harmful or offensive material and the need to further the interests of consumers ensuring choice, value for money, and market competition. •power of global media corporations, together with the rise of convergent media technologies and transformations in the production, distribution and marketing of digital media, have placed traditional approaches to media regulation at risk. E.g. newspapers.
•industry companies try to minimise risk and maximise audiences through vertical and horizontal integration, and by formatting their cultural products e.g. use of stars, genres, and serials •the largest companies/conglomerates now operate across a number of different cultural industries •potential of the internet has been contained to some extent by its partial incorporation into a large, profit-orientated set of cultural industries
•Media implants ideas in the mind of the audience directly •The media representation of aggressive and violence can cause the audience to imitate (copy cat behaviour)
•Exposure to repeated patterns of representation over long periods of time can shape and influence the way in which people perceive the world around them •Cultivation reinforces mainstream values
•The media encode ideologies into media texts and the audience decode this. •3 different ways in which text is understood •1 = dominant reading – encoders intended meaning , the prefured reading = fully understood/accepted •2=negotiated reading –encoders message is not acknowledged although message is adapted/negotiated to fit decoders own experience/content •3= oppositional reading- encoders message is understood but decoader disagrees reading it in a oppositional way
•Fans = active participants in construction and circulation of texual meanings •Fans create spin off media texts not autherised by producer e.g fan sites,fan fiction , fan made trailers ect. •Fans construct own cultural identities through borrowing and inflicting culture images a d are part or participory culture.
•Internet and digital technologies have an effect on relationships between media and individuals •The process of forming an idea of audience members as passive consumers is no longer in the age of the internet, as now media consumers have become producers who can speek back to media as well as creating and sharing content with one another
Bulmer and Katz
•Diversion – escape from routine and problems •Personal relationships – relationships with others + feeling part of a group •Personal identity – exporing/reinforcing our own identity and values •Surveillance –information, finding out about the world
•Community – want to feel part of a group •Intensity – want to feel life is exciting •Abundance – want to feel they are wealthy in aspects of life •Transparency – want to feel life is simple •Energy – want to feel that they are egocentric • •He also says ‘stars are commodities’
try and include theorists in your exam when giving media refrences to score higer grade