Media- mock revision pack

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  • Created on: 21-04-16 15:06

Evolutionary explanations for attraction to celebr


-SLT is a safer option than trial and error- as it means you make fewer mistakes- someone else takes the risk and you are able to see whether they are successful or not
-Prestige theory suggests that social learners benefit the most if they imitate behaviour from sucessful and powerful people
-genetic predisposition to observe and imitate behaviour from the most successful individuals allowed them to survive+pass on this gene to us in modern times
-These genes would promote 'general copying' (copying all of the behaviour of a successful person), because it would not have been easy to acertain which aspects of their behaviour made them so successful

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Prestige hypothesis AO2

-Intuitively appealing
-Difficult to test for as we cannot examine behaviour in the EEA -ergo speculative+unfalsifiable -not scientific theory
-Successful ppl in social group are not the same as celebrities bc we do not know them personally- this theory may work for the former and not the latter. However De Backer's research has found that we could think of celebs in this way.
-Persuasive evidence points to early experience eg attachment behaviour influencing the development of celebrity worship
-Many ppl not interested in celebrities
-Some evol psychologists disagree and argue; Dunbar - attraction to celebrities comes from the need to monitor and prevent 'social free loaders' who are gaining an advantage + ensure those w social power are giving something back 


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Gossip theory AO1


-Gossiping about high status individuals could help ppl to become more like them which may improve their attractiveness and ability to find a mate-->increasing RS.
-Gossip also promotes success, as it allows individuals to form allegiances with others as well as manipulating the reputation of rivals and exchange info about potential mates - ensuring greater social success, improving survival and RS.
Barkow (1992) suggests that our minds are fooled into thinking that celebrities are members of our own social networks, thus triggering the same gossip mechanisms that have evolved to keep up with the affairs of ingroup members

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Gossip theory AO2

-Intuitively appealing
-Difficult to test behaviour in the EEA- ergo unfalsifiable and speculative- not scientific
-evidence against--> persuasive evidence points towards attachment behaviour in early life influencing the development of celebrity worship
-Many ppl not interested in celebs
-De Backer 2007- surveyed 800Ps to test evolutionary explanations of celebrity attraction. Ps reported: 1) gossip was a useful way of acquiring info about social group members and the 2) media exposure of celebrities increased interest in them.
-This led him to believing that media exposure allowed ppl to misconceive celebs as members of the social group- supports prestige hypothesis  

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Persuasiveness of TV advertising

Behaviourist Principles:-

Classical Conditioning to create favourable association- product presented with a positive image so the product produces the same positive response, eg Andrex puppy+Dulux Dog
Product associated w distinctive music

SLT- choose a presenter for the ad campaign/ charity appeal who is someone the target audience can identify with- we observe their behaviour and imitate it because we IDENTIFY w the individual. The celebrity should be someone the target audience looks up to, and who they can see similarities in with themselves
if the campaign shows the celebrity being rewarded for using the product, this increases the likelihood of behaviour being imitated.

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Persuasiveness of TV advertising

Celebrity product Endorsement:-

Fowles (1996) in 1990 20% of Tv ads used celeb product endorsement
Giles (2003) - in providing a familiar face, celebrities become a source of infor that we can trust bc of the parasocial relationship we have built- they are a neutral source of information, advertisers claim.

O'Mahony+meenaghan 1997
-celeb endorsements are not regarded as particularly convincing or believable
-key characteristics of the source are the greatest influence, eg their perceived credibility and expertise

Erfgen 2001
-research focuses mainly on the characteristics of the celeb and not of the product itself- E argues that there are three diff types of endorsement - explicit mode 'I endorse this product' , implicit mode 'I use this product', co-present mode (celeb and product depicted together without further explanation)

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Persuasiveness of TV advertising


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