# Measuring Development

• Created by: naomi
• Created on: 12-01-14 16:27

## Measuring Development

Historically it has mainly been based on economic indicators e.g. GDP or GNI

• GDP = Gross Domestic Product: total value or goods and services produced
• GNI = Gross National Income: as above but includes income from overseas investment

Nowadays we are using a much wider variety of indicators to measure development. It takes a more holistic approach consifering social, economic, political and environmental factors

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## Using Statistics - Pros

• true representation - don't lie
• easy to compare and use
• can visually show results in graphs
• quantitative - facts - not subjective
• even if average, still gives indication
• lots of different aspects to colect data about
• population taken into account
• identifies problem areas
• goals for improvement can be set
• success can be measured
• failures can be recognised and analysed for improvements and to act upon them
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## Using Statistics - Cons

• only an average - can't see difference between richest/poorest - extremes missed out
• may be collected incorrectly
• certain numbers may be missed out
• manipulated by governments
• quickly become dated
• governments often lie - don't want to be represented badly
• sometimes out of context
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## Types of Indicators

Indicators can consist of:

• single variable indicators e.g. life expectancy
• combined variable indicators e.g. HDI (can show more about a country, but one statistic can bring the others down, and can't know for certain what the problems are)

Indicators for development:

• death/birth rate
• no. of people ill with HIV
• infant mortality rate
• life expectancy
• literay rates, exam pass rate
• % in primary work/different work sectors/seasonal employment/unemployment
• GDP per capita, HDI, purchasing price parity, GDI
• patient:GP ratio
• calorie intake
• computers/internet per 1000.
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This allows gobal incomes to be compared easily

e.g. in Denmark:

GDP per Capita =US\$62,000

GDP per Capita (PPP) = US\$37,000

This shows that if a person from Denmark (on their averge wage) went and lived in the USA, that's how much money they would have to spend as a result of a higher cost of living in the USA and also the exchange rate at that time.

THIS MAKES INDICATORS MORE RELIABLE AND COMPARABLE

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