- Created by: Psych951
- Created on: 11-05-18 10:24
- Record, store and retireve
- Three stage model
- Working memory model
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- The processes that allow us to record, store, & later retrieve experiences & information
- Three stage model: Atkinson and Shiffron: Sensory - Attention - Short-term - Rehearsal - Long-term - Retrieval
- Working memory model: Baddley and Hitch: Central executive - Phonological loop or visuospatial sketchpad - Episodic buffer - Centrale executive - Long-term memory
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- Holds sensory information
- Sensory registers
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Sensory Memory Expanded
- Breifly holds all incoming sensory information from the environment
- Allows you to select (pay attention to) information to transfer to short-term.
- Sensory registers:
- Iconic = Briefly holds visual representation of environment (icon).
- Echoic =Stores auditory stimuli/compresses info for a short time (2-3secs, slightly longer than iconic)
- Other reigsters for other senses
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- Temporarily holds information
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Short-Term Memory Expanded
- Memory store that temporarily holds information that we pay attention to
- 7+-2 capacity – Chunking increases capacity (type of mnemonic)
- Limited duration – Rehearsal extends
- Primarily acoustic storage - Organised by sound
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- Temporarily stores and prcoesses information
- Phonological loop
- Visuo-spatial sketchpad
- Episodic buffer
- Central Executive
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Working Memory Expanded
- Temporarily stores and processes information - More detailed extension of short-term memory. – Actively manipulates info.
- Phonological loop: Mental representation of sound – Store (sound input) and articulatory rehearsal system (repeat sounds)
- Visuospatial sketchpad: Visual and spatial store – Inner scribe (movement) and visual cache (form and colour)
- Episodic Buffer: Integrate info from other two to make coherent.
- Central executive: Directs action and attention and integrates info in episodic buffer
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- Durable stored memories
- Serial position effect
- Declarative memory
- Procedural memory
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Long-Term Memory Expanded
- Memories that are retained ready for later retrieval and use - Inform behaviour and thoughts
- Unlimited capacity
- Unlimited duration although other factors may affect memory trace or ability to retrieve
- Primarily semantic stroage - Encoded by meaning
- Primacy effect = Items move to LTM – Recency effect = Items still in STM – All called serial position effect.
- Declarative memory: Factual knowledge and conscious recall – Episodic (personal expereinces) and semantic (knwoeldge and facts unrelated to experience).
- Procedural memory: Motor and cognitive skills – Automatic
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- Effortful vs. Automatic
- Levels of processing
- Maintenance vs. Elaborative rehearsal
- Dual-coding theory
- Method of Loci
- Mnemonic devices
- Hierarchy of memories
- Enactment effect
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- Effective encoding helps retrieval
- Effortful = Conscious and deliberate - Automatic = Unconscious
- Levels of processing: Structural encoding = Shallow, stimulus appearance – Phonological = Intermediate, sound – Semantic = Deep, meaning.
- Maintenance rehearsal = Simple rote repetition in STM; Elaborative rehearsal = Expand on meaning of info, move into LTM
- Dual-coding theory = Encode using verbal and visual to enhance memory.
- Method of Loci = Associated mental images with physical location.
- Mnemonic devices = Memory aids that reorganise info into meaningful units.
- Hierarchy: Link memories and organise in hierarchy, producing associations that enhance memory
- Enactment effect: Performing a task increases memory of it.
- Schemas: Mental framework to organise information.
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- Associative network model
- Neural network model
- Spreading activation
- Parallel Distributed Processing
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- Model how memories may be organised in the brain to understand storage
- Associative network model:
- Network of associated ideas and concepts, in which activation of one network leads to spreading activation
- Neural networks:
- Computer model of nervous system to explain above network/correct problems.
- Nodes are information processing units, and each memory is represented by a unique pattern of nodes
- Connections between nodes are strengthened by activation.
- Spreading activation: The activation of one node leads to the activation of other strongly associated nodes
- Priming: The activation of one node prepares and encourages the activation of others
- Parallel distributed processing model = simultaneous firing of nodes to spread activation
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- Explict vs. Implicit memory
- Distinctive stimuli
- Autobiographical memories
- Flashbulb memories
- Encoding Specifitiy Principle
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- Explicit memory = Conscious and intentional retrieval e.g. recognition, cued recall etc.; Implicit = No conscious awareness of memory influence/retrieval
- Cue = Stimulus that activates memories. – generate associations = deeper processing.
- Distinctive stimuli are better e.g. emotional response, surprising etc.
- Autobiographical memories: Personal experiences – Enhanced by emotional arousal.
- Flashbulb memories: Vivid and clear memories – Much of detail is irrelevant – Not always accurate
- Encoding specificity principle: Memory is enhanced when conditions in retrieval are similar to time of encoding – Context and state dependent.
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- Encoding failure
- Decay theory
- Interference theory
- Tip-of-the-tongue state
- Motivated forgetting
- Retrospective vs. prospective memory
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- Encoding failure: Information is not processed deeply enough
- Decay Theory: With time and disuse, physical memory traces fade.
- Interference theory: Forget information because other information impairs ability to retrieve it
- Proactive = Past interfere with new
- Retroactive = New interferes with past.
- Tip of the tongue state: Can’t recall something but feel we are about to remember it.
- Motivated forgetting: Consciously or unconsciously wanting to forget an event e.g. repression.
- Retrospective memory = Memory of past; Prospective memory = Memory to do something in the future.
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- Memory loss
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- Memory loss due to special conditions or abnormalities
- Retrograde amnesia = Memory loss for events before trauma.
- Anterograde amnesia = Memory loss for events after trauma.
- Infantile amnesia = Inability to remember events from first few years of life.
- Dementia: Impaired memory and cognitive deficits due to brain degeneration.
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Memory as a Process
- Schemas and distortion
- Active sifting
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Memory as a Process Expanded
- Memories are constructed by piecing together stored information in a way that seems real and accurate
- Schemas can distort memories by causing encoding or retrieval to reflect pre-existing assumptions - Bartlett war of the ghosts
- Active process in which events are sifted through a funnel of past experiences, which affects memory accuracy
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- Factors affecting memory distortion
- False confessions
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Eyewitness Testimony Expanded
- Misinformation = distortion of memory due to misleading post-event information
- Factors affceting memory distortion: Leading questions, source confusion and suggestion
- Children are especially susceptible due to a difficulty to distinguish fiction and reality - Hard to distinguish children's reports as accurate or false due to language barriers and internalised false confessions
- False confessions – Voluntary = Gain attention/pathological reason – Compliant = End interrogation/receive something they need – Internalised = Truly believe.
- Culture shapes memory construction.
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Memory and the Brain
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Memory and the Brain Expanded
- Sensory memory = Sensory areas of cerebral cortex
- Working memory = Different cortical areas across lobes e.g. central executive in frontal lobe
- Long-term memory = Hippocampus and surrounding.
- Memory consolidation = Gradual binding process in hippocampus after processed in other regions.
- Memory forming: Structural neuronal changes lead to greater synaptic activity – Changes to long-lasting synaptic efficiency due to enhanced or new connections help form LTM.
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