MB1 - Memory Extend Cards

  • Created by: Psych951
  • Created on: 11-05-18 10:24


  • Record, store and retireve
  • Three stage model
  • Working memory model
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Basics Expanded

  • The processes that allow us to record, store, & later retrieve experiences & information 
  • Three stage model: Atkinson and Shiffron: Sensory - Attention - Short-term - Rehearsal - Long-term - Retrieval
  • Working memory model: Baddley and Hitch: Central executive - Phonological loop or visuospatial sketchpad - Episodic buffer - Centrale executive - Long-term memory
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Sensory Memory

  • Holds sensory information
  • Attention
  • Sensory registers
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Sensory Memory Expanded

  • Breifly holds all incoming sensory information from the environment 
  • Allows you to select (pay attention to) information to transfer to short-term.
  • Sensory registers:
    • Iconic = Briefly holds visual representation of environment (icon).
    • Echoic =Stores auditory stimuli/compresses info for a short time (2-3secs, slightly longer than iconic)
    • Other reigsters for other senses 
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Short-Term Memory

  • Temporarily holds information
  • Capacity
  • Duration
  • Storage
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Short-Term Memory Expanded

  • Memory store that temporarily holds information that we pay attention to
  • 7+-2 capacity – Chunking increases capacity (type of mnemonic)
  • Limited duration – Rehearsal extends
  • Primarily acoustic storage - Organised by sound
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Working Memory

  • Temporarily stores and prcoesses information
  • Phonological loop
  • Visuo-spatial sketchpad
  • Episodic buffer
  • Central Executive
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Working Memory Expanded

  • Temporarily stores and processes information -  More detailed extension of short-term memory. – Actively manipulates info.
  • Phonological loop: Mental representation of sound – Store (sound input) and articulatory rehearsal system (repeat sounds)
  • Visuospatial sketchpad: Visual and spatial store – Inner scribe (movement) and visual cache (form and colour)
  • Episodic Buffer: Integrate info from other two to make coherent.
  • Central executive: Directs action and attention and integrates info in episodic buffer
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Long-Term Memory

  • Durable stored memories
  • Capacity
  • Duration
  • Storage
  • Serial position effect
  • Declarative memory
  • Procedural memory 
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Long-Term Memory Expanded

  • Memories that are retained ready for later retrieval and use - Inform behaviour and thoughts 
  • Unlimited capacity 
  • Unlimited duration although other factors may affect memory trace or ability to retrieve 
  • Primarily semantic stroage - Encoded by meaning
  • Primacy effect = Items move to LTM – Recency effect = Items still in STM – All called serial position effect.
  • Declarative memory: Factual knowledge and conscious recall – Episodic (personal expereinces) and semantic (knwoeldge and facts unrelated to experience).
  • Procedural memory: Motor and cognitive skills – Automatic
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  • Effortful vs. Automatic
  • Levels of processing
  • Maintenance vs. Elaborative rehearsal 
  • Dual-coding theory
  • Method of Loci
  • Mnemonic devices
  • Hierarchy of memories
  • Enactment effect
  • Schema
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Encoding Expanded

  • Effective encoding helps retrieval
  • Effortful = Conscious and deliberate - Automatic = Unconscious
  • Levels of processing: Structural encoding = Shallow, stimulus appearance – Phonological = Intermediate, sound – Semantic = Deep, meaning.
  • Maintenance rehearsal = Simple rote repetition in STM; Elaborative rehearsal = Expand on meaning of info, move into LTM
  • Dual-coding theory = Encode using verbal and visual to enhance memory.
  • Method of Loci = Associated mental images with physical location.
  • Mnemonic devices = Memory aids that reorganise info into meaningful units.
  • Hierarchy: Link memories and organise in hierarchy, producing associations that enhance memory
  • Enactment effect: Performing a task increases memory of it.
  • Schemas: Mental framework to organise information.
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  • Models 
  • Associative network model
  • Neural network model
  • Spreading activation
  • Priming
  • Parallel Distributed Processing
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Storage Expanded

  • Model how memories may be organised in the brain to understand storage
  • Associative network model:
    • Network of associated ideas and concepts, in which activation of one network leads to spreading activation 
  • Neural networks:
    • Computer model of nervous system to explain above network/correct problems.
    • Nodes are information processing units, and each memory is represented by a unique pattern of nodes
    • Connections between nodes are strengthened by activation.
  • Spreading activation: The activation of one node leads to the activation of other strongly associated nodes
  • Priming: The activation of one node prepares and encourages the activation of others
  • Parallel distributed processing model = simultaneous firing of nodes to spread activation
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  • Explict vs. Implicit memory
  • Cues
  • Distinctive stimuli
  • Autobiographical memories
  • Flashbulb memories
  • Encoding Specifitiy Principle 
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Retrieval Expanded

  • Explicit memory = Conscious and intentional retrieval e.g. recognition, cued recall etc.; Implicit = No conscious awareness of memory influence/retrieval 
  • Cue = Stimulus that activates memories. – generate associations = deeper processing.
  • Distinctive stimuli are better e.g. emotional response, surprising etc.
  • Autobiographical memories: Personal experiences – Enhanced by emotional arousal.
  • Flashbulb memories: Vivid and clear memories – Much of detail is irrelevant – Not always accurate
  • Encoding specificity principle: Memory is enhanced when conditions in retrieval are similar to time of encoding – Context and state dependent.
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  • Encoding failure
  • Decay theory
  • Interference theory
  • Tip-of-the-tongue state
  • Motivated forgetting
  • Retrospective vs. prospective memory
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Forgetting Expanded

  • Encoding failure: Information is not processed deeply enough
  • Decay Theory: With time and disuse, physical memory traces fade.
  • Interference theory: Forget information because other information impairs ability to retrieve it
    • Proactive = Past interfere with new
    • Retroactive = New interferes with past.
  • Tip of the tongue state: Can’t recall something but feel we are about to remember it.
  • Motivated forgetting: Consciously or unconsciously wanting to forget an event e.g. repression.
  • Retrospective memory = Memory of past; Prospective memory = Memory to do something in the future.
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  • Memory loss
  • Retrograde
  • Anterograde
  • Infantile
  • Dementia
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Amnesia Expanded

  • Memory loss due to special conditions or abnormalities
  • Retrograde amnesia = Memory loss for events before trauma.
  • Anterograde amnesia = Memory loss for events after trauma.
  • Infantile amnesia = Inability to remember events from first few years of life. 
  • Dementia: Impaired memory and cognitive deficits due to brain degeneration.
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Memory as a Process

  • Constructions
  • Schemas and distortion
  • Active sifting 
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Memory as a Process Expanded

  • Memories are constructed by piecing together stored information in a way that seems real and accurate
  • Schemas can distort memories by causing encoding or retrieval to reflect pre-existing assumptions - Bartlett war of the ghosts
  • Active process in which events are sifted through a funnel of past experiences, which affects memory accuracy 
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Eyewitness Testimony

  • Misinformation
  • Factors affecting memory distortion
  • Children 
  • False confessions
  • Culture 
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Eyewitness Testimony Expanded

  • Misinformation = distortion of memory due to misleading post-event information
  • Factors affceting memory distortion: Leading questions, source confusion and suggestion
  • Children are especially susceptible due to a difficulty to distinguish fiction and reality - Hard to distinguish children's reports as accurate or false due to language barriers and internalised false confessions
  • False confessions – Voluntary = Gain attention/pathological reason – Compliant = End interrogation/receive something they need – Internalised = Truly believe.
  • Culture shapes memory construction.
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Memory and the Brain

  • Sensory
  • Working
  • Long-term
  • Consolidation
  • Formation
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Memory and the Brain Expanded

  • Sensory memory = Sensory areas of cerebral cortex
  • Working memory = Different cortical areas across lobes e.g. central executive in frontal lobe
  • Long-term memory = Hippocampus and surrounding.
  • Memory consolidation = Gradual binding process in hippocampus after processed in other regions.
  • Memory forming: Structural neuronal changes lead to greater synaptic activity – Changes to long-lasting synaptic efficiency due to enhanced or new connections help form LTM.
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