External agents can cross parental barrier and harm developing embryo
Greater effects = Greater doses
Heavy drinking causes birth defects
Alcohol passes swiftly throught the placenta
Baby organs breakdown alcohol slower = lifelong
Foetal Alcohol Syndrome - risk of miscarriage and birth
Dangerous for breastfeeding, interferes with breast injection and alcohol gets in.
Growth retardation, small children, facial defect, small head and eyes, midface defects
CNS defects - attention problems, seizures, learn difficulties, Early cell proliferation, foetal malnutrition, impaired immune system
Caffeine, Tabacco and Cocaine
Caffeine - genital abnormalities, reproductive failures, reduced fertility, prematurity, low birth weight
Tabacco - reduces oxygen for baby, causes low birth weights, increase rate of spontaneous abortion, impaired intellectual impairment.
Cocaine - can cause miscarriage, stroke, premature cuts flow of nutrients can trigger labour
mental retardation, cerebral palsy, attitude and mood problems, babies get drug withdrawal