- 1990 Boradcasting Act led to the setting up of more local and commercial radio stations.
- by 2007, three major radio stations had swallowed the smaller station.
- 1980s saw a boom in cinema going
- Thatcher removed government subsidies and promoted the 'free market' by removing the 25% tax break for investors in films.
- British film industry relied on American financial backing.
- The Governement of 2000 increasingly used Lottery funding to support the British Film Industry.
- Murdoch increased the power of newspaper owners and reduced editorial freedom .
- Under Thatcher, freedom of the press was eroded and goverment controls increased.
- Spin - 60% of news were 'wire copy' and only 12% of stories based on reporter research.
- 75% of the press supported Thatcher and Conservative.
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- In 1945, 90% of the population read a newspaper; 95% read a Sunday paper.
- Newspapers increasingly focused on 'human interest' stories.
- BBC held a monopoly and focused on rasing educational and cultural standards, 'songs of praise', presenters were upper class and dressed smartly.
- 90% of homes had wireless.
- Americanisation of culture came through the influence of radio e.g swing fuelled dance halls.
- Radio 3 only attracted 2% of listeners
- On sunday's people switched to pirate stations to avoid religious programmes.
- Films such as 'The Blue Lamp' reaffirmed what was acceptable in society.
- In 1960s films such as Saturday Night and Sunday Morning championed alternative lifestyles.
- In the late 1950s attendance figures fell by two-thirds.
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Rock and Roll
- Programmes such as Six-Five Special were directed at teenagers and attracted 10m viewers.
- Television coverage accelerated the adoption of teenage fashions such as the teddy boy, mod or rocker.
- Tabloid papers identified stars such as Bill Hayley to boost circulation; led to 'fan mania'.
- Tabloids portrayed stars as responsible for the decline in standards; Sex Pistols provoked.
- Coverage of clashes between mods and rockers were sensationalised.
- Pirate stations emerged in 1964 such as Radio Caroline.
- BBC governors viewed spending license fees on youths as a waste of money.
- Radio merely responded to youth market that was already there.
- Films such as Blackboard Jungle promoted the image of music and rock and roll.
- Films targeted the teen market e.g Girls! Girls! Girls!
- Films cashed in on existing stars rather than promoting rock and roll music
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- There were hard-hitting and controversal dramas such as Up The Junction.
- TW3 challened social hierachy and attracted 12m viewers.
- 'cathy come home' was broadcast two weeks before shelter was set up, but did not influence the creation of the charity.
- Tabliods became critical of politicians; Profumo Scandal in 1963.
- Arrival of colour supplements, however newspaper circulation fell by 15% in 1951-70
- 'New Wave' became significant for its portrayal of depressing realism of everday life of working class families.
- Cinema content became more gritty and reflected sexual relationships outside of marriage; Saturday Night Sunday Morning.
- In 1955-63 half of cinemas closed.
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- Prince Charles & Camilla Parker Bowles relationship & marriage
- Princess Diana's interview in 1995 Panorama & publication of Andrew Morton's Book
- Princess Diana's Death in 1997Press attention given to Prince William & Harry after the death of Princess DianaPress coverage given to birth of royal children since WW2
- "Annus horribilis" was how the Queen called 1992 in her Christmas message
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Undermining Authority: Politicians and Police
- 1944 BBC agreement of the '14-day rule', but 1956 BBC and ITV had become frustrated with this rule and began to work was around it.
- Private eye and TW3 paved the way for politcal scandal
- Spitting image, with labour MP Roy Hattersley spitting everywhere.
- Tory 'sleaze' in the Press about them taking bribes of £2000 for each question they answered on behalf of Mohammad Al-Fayed.
- Daily Telegraph's exposure of the expenses scandal
- In 2001, the Sun was told the date of general elections before the Queen.
- Public relations disaster of 'It's a Royal Knockout'
- The Sweeney showed the police in a positive light as they almost always caught the criminal, however, Dispatches: undercover copper exposed problems in the force.
- In 2005, the Met shot a 27 year old Brazilian man in the head mistakenly believing he was a suicide bomber.
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Sex before Marriage
- 1983, 40% of people thought sex before marriage was wrong.
- in 2003, this had dropped to 20%
- In the 1970s-1980s, 90% thought sex with someone other than your partner was wrong.
- In 1960, Romatic magazines such as Boyfriend fell out of favour, with the rise of sexually orientated magazines such as Honey.
- In 1980s and 1990s, magazines such as More, became even more explicit with sexual advice.
- Mid-1990s, there was a rise in sexual men's magazines such as Loaded.
- In 2000s, there was a rise in sexualised adverts and tv programmes such as Skins.
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- In 1950s and 1960s, they were related to espionage due to media stories surrounding the Cambrdige Spy Ring after 1951
- in 1963, 93% thought homosexuals were ill and needed medical treatement.
- 1970s, leading stars such as David Bowie and Elton John admitted being homosexual; Elton John admitted to being gay in the early 1990s.
- Films such as Four Weddings and a Funeral had popular gay characters.
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