mass media: audiences

these cards are based on the chapter of audiences in the mass media topic of A2 sociology

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audience definitions

Key Terms

active audience approaches- theories that stress the effects of the media are limited because people are not easily influenced

catharsis- the process of relieving tensions- for example, violence on screen providing a safe outlet for people's violent tendencies

copycat violence- violence that occurs as a result of copying something that is seen in the media

cultural effects model- the view that the media are powerful in so far as they link up with other agents of socialization to encourage particular ways of making sense of the world

desensitization- the process by which, through repeated exposure to media violence, people come to accept violent behaviour as normal

disinhibition effect- effect of media violence, whereby people become convinced that in some social situations, the 'normal' rules that govern conflict and difference, i.e discussions and negotiation, can be replaced with violence

effects approach an approach based on the hyperdermic syringe model which believes that the media have direct effects on their audience

hypodermic syringe model- the view that the media are very powerful and the audience very weak. the media can 'inject' their messages into the audience, who accept the uncritically

negotiated reading- an interpretation of a media text that modifies the intended reading

polysemic- attracts more than one type of reading or interpretation

reception analysis model- the view that individuals make meanings from media messages

selective exposure- the idea that people only watch, listen or read what they want to

selective filter model- the view that audience members only allow certain media messages through

selective perception- the idea that people only take notice of certain media messages

selective retention- the idea that people only remember certain media messages

sensitization- the process of becoming more aware of the consequences of violence

uses and gratifications model- the view that people use the media for their own purposes

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audience references


collins &murroni- "new media is screen based, can offer images, texts and sound and allow some form of interaction"

OFCOM- " internet is fastest growing platform for news although only 6% of adults use the internet as their main form of news"

Case study- Barack Obama- Obama uses the new media to help get elected, he used twitter, myspace, facebook and youtube to gain support an put his message across

hamermas (1992) public space- " the internet is a public sphere in which people can debate ideas and freely engage in political activity. the government and industry have no control of the democratization of the internet- it could be a powerful tool

amnesty international (2006)- a number of governments have tried to supress the freedom of expression offered by the internet e.g china, vietnam, tunisia, saudi arabia and syria

OFCOM- social networking- social networking sites have grown dramatically- ysers can be; alpha socialisers, attention seekers, followers, faithful or functionals

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