Types of masculinity
- Hegemonic masculinity- this is the streotypical 'lad'- they have a dominant masculinity
- Subordinate masculinity- this is the complete oposite to hegemonic masculinty and goes against the dominant masculinity
- complicit masculinity- also known as the new man- they have some aspects of a hegemonic masculinty but are also not afraid to look after the children or do the housework
- marginalised masculnity- describes how some examples are not rejected outright but are not seen as legitimate
1 of 4
David Gilmore- cultural concepts of masculinity
- adapts a functionalist approach, but doesn't see masculinity as an inevitable feature of all societies
- he discusses how masculinity is defined
- he belives that masculinity is not entirely biology
- agrees with the feminist view that it is biological sex and cultural norms that make up a persons masculinity
- Gilmore identifies 3 main typical features of masculinity, found in most societies. these are; Man the impregnator, man the provider, and man the protector.
- all of these characteristics have something in common- they are all either dangerous or competitive and failure carries a high cost
- Gilmore does, however say that in some societies, masculinity has a different meaning.
- although his ideas have been criticised, they successfully show the importance of culture in influencing ideologies of masculinity.
2 of 4
Victor Seidler- rationality and masculinity
- focuses on men in Western societies
- masculinity in western societies is linked to the thinking and beliefs associated with enlightenment
- this then emphasised reason and objective science, and rejected emotion
- science became dominated by men because they were seen as the only sex that was capable of rational thinking
- emotions then became less valued then reason and women often feel that only they have emotional needs and demands
- men's association with reason then contributed and maintained a male patriarchal power at every level
- men tell women to calm down and that they are irrational and then see themselves as the neutral voice of reason
- This is not based on a detailed empirical approach and is instead based on abstract.
- it reflects a subjective white, middle-class Jewish masculinity
3 of 4
Bob Connell- masculinities
- looked at how masculinity is changing and at the variety of meanings masculinity can have
- he rejects biological determinism, cultural determinism and those that see gender as a result of a combination of biology and culture and believes that the body is an active agent in social relationships biology and culture and fused
4 of 4