Crime Patterns - Official Criminal Statistics
- OCS show a concentration of criminal activity within the WC and an absence of criminal behaviour among the MC and UC.
- OCS show the most crime is committed by the WC.
- WC tend to be committed for street crimes such as burglary.
- MC tend to be committed for corporate crimes such as fraud.
- Distribution of deviant activity isn't class concentrated but targeting for policing is.
TM - Criminogenic Capitalism.
- Crime is inevitable as capitalism is criminogenic by the nature of it crime is created.
- Capitalism is based on exploiting workers for a profit.
- Gordon 1976 - Capitalist values such as wealth can cause utilitarian crimes such as theft.
- Low wages mean workers experience poverty.
- Utilitarian crimes may be the only way of obtaining consumer goods.
- Rape can be influenced by capitalism.
- Marxist Feminists - lack of power in the work place causes ****.
- To reclaim power they excert sexual power over women out of the work place.
- Gordon - useful for offering a critique of strain theory. Wealth and materialism not mainstream values.
- Marxist Feminists - useful for recognising capitalism can cause ****.
- However capitalism can't cause all crime and ignores that criminal behaviour can stem from ethnic inequalities such as racism. - Hate crimes.
- Use Law creation as criticism and link to next point.
TM - Law creation
- Why the WC appear on OCS.
- Law creation has a ruling class bias. - RC has the power though law creation to define WC behaviour as criminal.
- Laws were implemented to protect wealth, property and possessions.
William Chambliss 1975
- Laws to protect the WC are the cornerstone of the capitalist economy.
- e.g Introduction of English law in East African colonies.
- At the time the economy was not a money economy. English introducted Tax so the popultion had to work for them to pay the tax. Therefore served the needs of capitalist plantation owners.
- Chambliss - useful as he recognises how the law can be manipulated to serve the RC.
- However - some laws are to protect the WC such as health and safety laws.
- Use ideological functions to criticise and link to next point.
TM - Ideological functions of the law
- Some laws are passed which seem to benefit the WC such as health and safety laws.
Frank Pearce 1976
- These laws benefit the RC.
- They keep workers fit for work.
- Give capitalism a caring face an creates a false consciousness.
- Trick worker into thinking the system care about their welfare.
TM - Law enforcement and White coller crime
- All classes committ crime but there is selective enforcement.
- The rich ger ticher and the poor get poorer
- The more likely a crime is committed by the RC the more likely it won't be treated as a criminal offence.
- Disproportionately high prosecution rate for street crimes
- Tax evasion and health and safety violations are forgiven by the justice system.
- Sample of 200 firms.
- All had broken health and safety laws.
- 1.5% prosecuted.
TM - Types of white coller crime
1. Occupational crimes
- Committed by individuals to benefit themselves.
- Joyte De Laurey 2005 - Case Study.
- Embezzled millions from Goldman Sachs. De Laurey bought 11 UK properties, £300,000 worth of cartier jewellry.
- 7 year prison sentence.
2. Corporate crimes
- Committed by groups of employees working to benefit the organisation.
- Box - Harm caused to consumers - Mechanical defects in the Ford Pino led to 900 deaths. Ford was aware of the defect.
TM - Harm caused and Evaluation
- TM interested in harm caused against consumers.
- Hughes and Langan 2001 - 1965 - Mid 90's, 25,000 people were killed at work. 70% of which were due to breech of health and safety legislation.
- Box,Hughes and Langan - useful - corporate crime has widespread effects
- Reiman and Carson - useful - White coller crimes go under investigated
- However - Criminal justice system goes against capitalist classes. Prosecutions of corporate crime do occur.
- Left Realists - Marxism ignores intra-class crimes
Evaluation of TM
- Understand crime can be committed by the WC and MC.
- What motivates a criminal. - Deterministic.
- Neo-Marxist & Humanists - deterministic view - excludes free will and choice - not all WC members commit crimes due to poverty and alienaton.
- Neo-Marxist - Crime stems from class inequalities - ignores ethnic inequalities
- Use functionalist
NM - Critical Criminology
Taylor, Walton and Young
- Criminal behaviour is volunteristic - free will
- People commit crimes to change society
- Individuals are not controlled by society.
- Crime is a symbol against capitalism
- Recognise free will.
- Use TM to criticise.
NM - Black Criminality as a Form of Political Resi
- Ethnic minority crime is a form of political resistance against a racist society
- Most Blacks and Asians origionate from former colonies - learnt to resist oppression such as slavery through riots and demonstrations.
- Political struggle was criminalised by the state
- Rodney King
- 2011 - Mark Duggen
- Useful - Riots are an attempt at ridding society of institutional racism
- However - Left Realist Lea and Young - Real victims of black criminality is the afro-caribbeans themselves - ignores intra-ethnic crimes.
Marxist subcultural theory
NM - Stuart Hall
- Subcultures form as a way of resistance to the inequalities within the capitalist system.
- Difficulty finding work - join subcultures with other disadvataged youths.
- Dress code and music set them apart from the rest of society.
- Music and style are a symbolismn of resistance
- God save the queen - Sex Pistols
- White Riot - The Clash
- Useful - style and music as political resistance
- However - Feminists - ignoring that girls join subcultures e.g The Slits a female punk band
LR - Black Criminality
Lea and Young
- Critical of Hall and Gilroy
- Accept OCS
- Relitive deprivation and marginalisation cause black criminality
- Marginalisation - Feeling powerless due to police racism - oppressive stop and search so turn to non utilitarian crimes
- Relative Deprivation - Economically deprived compared to people who surround them - commit utilitarian crimes in response to poverty and unemployment
- Useful - police racism
- Acknowledge discriminatory policing in relation to OCS
- However - 90% of crimes are reported by the public so it is unlikely police actions were due to them being racist
- TM - Capitalism as criminogenic
- TM - RC controls the state which makes the law
- TM - Law performs ideological functions for capitalism
- Critical Criminology - less deterministic
- Gilroy - Black criminality as a form of political resistance
- Left Realists - Critical of NM view on black criminality