What is Verstehen?
stepping into sombodies shoes before we assume, we need a full understanding of a persons life before we judge them.
what is Ascetic?
watching money carefully, living frugally and only buying things you need,
what does Wever say about religion?
Weber says religion can drive the economy and it can drive social change as the working class work hard to attempt to gain a place in heaven and this is productive for the economy and society as they are getting a powerful strong workforce without the complaints of the working class as they want to be there earing a place in heaven
why are marx and webers view different in views/
Marx says that the economy changes the religion and that the economy controls everything aswell as religion but weber says that religion changes the economy.
what does weber challenge about the marxist theory
weber challenges the materialism and economic determinism of the marxist theory, weber notes how society is shaped by human ideas rather than action directed by an ideology that is manipulated by an economic elite.
weber and industrialisation?
weber studied how societies took off. he was interested in the variables that led to the economic growth and the rise of the industrial society. he conducted a comparative analysis of many societies and identified the main factor that casued the birth of the industrial age.
What is the main facotr causing the birth of the i
the PROTESTANT FAITH/ ETHIC.
what has led to the rise of western capitalism
ASCETIC CALVINIST PROTESTANTISM
THE IMPORTANCE OF CALVINISM
THE 'ELECT - people who are chosen to go to heaven by god before they are born, this led to a psycholigcal how- how did a calvinist know that they had been chosen? their only solution was that only the chosen people would live a good life on earth so model behaviour was the goal.
What is model behaviour known as?
THE PROTESTANT ETHIC- this led to the rise of capitalism
the protestant ethic?
1. abstaning from lifes pleasures
2. living an austere life
3. having strict self discipline
what is the calling?
humans have a calling this is their career, their way to please god, hard work in ones career was a sign of obiediance and respect to god.
protestants dissaproved off.?
1. time wasting
3. idle gossip.
4. people sleeping more than needed
5. sexual intercourse
Asetic protestant attitude to wealth
this attitude led to the creation of more profit and wealth, it helped the rise of capitalism.
capitalism is based upon the rational organisation and action- a degree of self control and planning.
The effect of protestant ethic.
this ethics led to duties and obligation, a methological, single minded pursuit of a calling.
the rise of capitalism
what does althusser say?
he argues that the ruling class supress the working class through the repressive and ideological state apparatus.
what is the repressive state apparatus?
phsyical control through structures such as the police and the judicial system. these control the working class through threats and punishments of custodial sentences, fines ASBOS curfews and other physical means.
what is the ideological state apparatus?
these structures control the way the working class think and therefore behave, in order to prevent deviant and or criminal behaviour they need to instil morals and values through the educational system, the family the media and religion.
what does religion teach us about work? (dominant
it is worth noting that in chrisitan teachings jesus had a day job, he worked as a carpenter.
ruling class domnant ideology essentially suggests that work is normal and everyone has to work- its a natural part of life.
marx points out that passingon this dominant ideology to the working class is only half the job complete. it is up to the ruling class to make the workking class feel like they are the ones who ultimatly benefit from working, the ruling class must also create a flase class conciousness amongst the working class.
how does religion help create a false class concio
marx says religion is the opium of the people, a spiritual gin that dulls the pain of oppression, religion eases the suffereing of alienation.
religion acts as aneventual escape from suffereing and oppression in this life with promises of a perfect life after death in heaven.
religion offers hope of supernatural intervention to solve problems on earth,
religion provides an explanation and justification for inequality.
in marxism religion is an instrument of the ruling class, used to justify class inequality and control the working class
how does religion maintain the class structure?
religion helps maintain the unequal class structure and as such keeps societies structures balanced (enevenly) . religion ensures that the working class work, that they do not complain about it and above all it prevents the working class from rising up against the ruling class.
what force is religion?