Marx and Engels:
- Influences on Marx:
- 1848 the year of revolutions
- treaty of paris in 1815
- flight to england.
- german idealist
- Hegel 1770-1831
- Romantic Philosophy
- classical political economy
- labour theory of value: real value was determined by the amouth of labout that goes into a thing.
- THE WANDERER:
- quest for ultimate meaning or total understanding.
- 'self-estrangement' or ALIENATION
- journey of self-discovery.
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Idealism and Materials:
- phases or epochs
- diffferent ideas
- but also different things
- property relations, laws, scientific inventions.
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Master and Slaves:
- According to Hegel, this is a relationship in which both parties learn or develop.
- Over time the master becomes dependent on the slace.
- the slave is labouring and so learning about thier identity and gaining understanding
- the master controls the slave but is dependent.
- the slave is controlled by the master but is independent.
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- division of labour.
- application of power to production
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- Surplus value must be seen as exploitation
- exploitation the defining feature capitalist economy
- exploitation does not doesnt go on in all places and all times: not efore capitalism and not after capitalism.
- capitalism is only a stage on the way to something else
- how will the sort of economy we have change?
- The rulling class and rullimng ideas are in every epoch (part of time) the class which has the means of material production and force of society is at the same time its rulling intelectual force.
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capitalism's design faults:
- business cycles: reccessions, booms and slumps
- exploitation (surplus value is re-invested in order to increase the size of the enterprise and make for more exploitation)
- under-consumption - cost more
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what comes next?
- journey towards complete understanding (not forgetting self-discovery after alienation) which has various phases.
- Epochs are distinguished by different ideas and material things.
- Marx adn Engels take this from Hegel but for them its the material worl that provides the driving force.
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material world provides the Driving force of histo
- its material changes not changes in ideas that take us from one phase to another.
- its the material characteristics of each epoch that are its real defining characteristics (ideas do change but as the dependent variable not the independent variable one)
- for M and E which is most important is how we deal with nature and the relation we enter into with each other to do this.
- you can see this in capitalism: material forces - both the hard stuff like technological change and the changes in social relationsh )ever larger capital, fewre capitalist) are doing the driving force.
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- Dialectical Materialism: the interpritation of reality that views matter as the sole subject of change and all change as the product of a constant conflict between opposites arising from the internal contradicitions.
- Capitalism: an economic system where the means of producation are controled by the private owners with the goal of making profits in the market economy.
- Means of production: production of large quantities. human labour and power.
- social and techniqual relations of production
- Alienation: the systematic result of living in a socially stratified society. being part of a social class alienates a person from his/her identity:
- the worker loses their ability to determine thier life/destiny - being alienated.
- Exploitation: act of using a person labour without offering them adequate compensation.
- Surplues value: new value created by workers that is in excess of thier own labour cost and which is therefore the available to be appropriated by the capitalist.
- Ideology: conscious and unconscious set of goals and ideas.
- Base/super structure: the way in which a business/society runs and who for (capitalism)
- it includes societies culture, institutions polictical power, structures, roles, rituals and state.
- the base determines the conditions of the super structure.
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