Manchester Edexcel Geography Unit 2

Revision flashcards on the topic of Manchester - one of our urban rebranding case studies for the May exam

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  • Created by: Vicky
  • Created on: 05-04-12 12:53


Why did Manchester grow? 16th and 17th centuries, textile industries developed. 18th century developed as major industrial centre of the world with canals and manufacturing using stream power. Early part of 19th century, city as a place of total urban squalor, with major cholera epidemics in 1832.

Manchester in the early 20th century: 1901 - population reached 544,000. University opened in 1903.1907 - 1911 - many new garden housing areas were built.1930s - mass unemployment due to cheap labour overseas/mechanisation.Heavily bombed in WW2. Early 1960s - massive slum clearance replaced by high rise flats.

Mid 20th to early 21st century: Deindustrialisation led to decline leaving large areas of derelict land. Big music scene - Stone Roses/Happy Mondays. 1981 - Major inner city riots. 1991 - M60 planned as a complete ring road in the city. 1992 - first city to reintroduce trams. 1996 - Largest terrorist bomb ever exploded in city centre - much of the city had to be rebuilt. 1999 - 4800 residents attracted back to city living in warehouse conversions. 2002 - hosted Commonwealth Games.

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Sustainable Regeneration of East Manchester

Comprises of 1000ha of land next to Manchester City Centre. Area was once centre of manufacturing industry producing much of the wealth responsible for the grwoth and prosperity of the city. 1970s - economic decline set in as area experienced deindustrialisation. 1990s - East Manchester became one of the most deprived areas in the UK.

1975 - 85 - 60% employment loss. 30% of population loss in the 1990s. Collapse of housing market. 20% of properties were vacant. Low skills base; people only trained for manufacturing. High crime/ poor wealth/poor community/retail facilities/infrastructure/environment/transport links. Fragile economic base. 52% of households recieved benefits.

East Manchester LTD 2000 - designated by government in 2000, one of first urban regeneration companies in UK. Working with local partnership organisations to produce plans to regenerate area. First plan - Regeneration Framework - 2000 - 2008. Successful in tackling some of the major issues facing E. Manchester. Second phase currently running until 2018.

First regeneration framework - saw building of 12,500 new homes. Sportcity. Public transport system, educational facilities, improved physical environment. The unemployed need to be retrained. Since 2000, projects created to improve literacy levels/IT skills. Work placements/apprenticeships have been made available, and many 100s of people have been retrained. Metrolink that opened in 1992 expanded into E. Manchester with new stations - easy access to retail/city. Bus services/footpaths/cycle ways improved/extended to promote sustainable transport. 

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East Manchester Regeneration

New Islington - area of redevelopment. 'Tutti Frutti' 'going green'

Manchester Commonwealth Games - 2002 - catalyst for redevelopment. Successful in maintaining the legacy of new sporting facilities and social, physical and economic regeneration. Largest multi - sport event to be held in England. 72 nations competed in 14 individual sports and team sports events.

Sportcity - One of most dramatic transformations in the area. Involved creation of EU's largest multi - sports complex. City of Manchester Stadium built to host Commonwealth Games in 02 and now home to Manchester City FC. Also outdoor/indoor athletics arenas/national squash centre and national cycling centre. 350 new apartments been constructed alongside the Ashton Canal.

Other World Class Venues - New aquatics centre in Pennigton Country Park can hold 4000 people and has 5 swimming pools. National Cycling Centre can seat 3,500 - home to GB cycling team. New projects like sportcity acted as catalyst for other regeneration projects within the city. Local businesses benefitted during Games events. However as well as the noise, overcrowding and increase in local taxes, the population did not feel ownership of the facilities, with many seeing them for the elite only. Games led to £570m direct investment into East Manchester and £600m invested creating approx. 20,000 jobs. Overall legacy has boosted its economy by about £18m a year. 

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Manchester Regeneration Continued

Salford Quays - West Manchester. Docks/industrial area. Dependent on Liverpool for imports from abroad. Decided they would build a canal alongside the River Mersey and bypass Liverpool altogether. Cost £15m took 6 years. 35 miles long. Opened in 1884. 

Manchester Docks - Canal joined 4 main docks - became important in industrial development of Manchester. Cotton, lard, oranges, grain, chemicals, clay biggest imports. 1959 - Docks became 3rd largest in UK linked to Egypt, S. Africa, USA etc. Alongside this the first and one of the largest industrial estates was built. Trafford industrail estate has major companies on it like Proctor, Gamble and Kellogg's.

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Oldest part of Manchester. Gentrified area. Key area in the industrial revolution. Bridgewater Canal - central. First canal of the country - 1761. Potato Wharf - docking area. Mock style buildings - red houses. 1830 - railway line built to cater to demands. Metro. 1950s - 60s - declined. Deindustrialisation due to types of goods that were imported; weren't desirable. Isolated location. Weren't built for container ships. Poor infrastructure. High unemployment/derelict buildings/unclean canals.

Renewal and gentrification: 1982: government labelled area as first urban heritage park in the country; brought funding. Usually given to areas which were being gentrified; much more restricted. Listed buildings. Didn't work. 1985 - changed into an urban development corporation. £10m from EU, £50m from Manchester City Council and central government. Successfulness depended on tourism, employment, housing workers so they don't have to commute - otherwise leads to donut effect.Ampitheatre - connection to Roman past - outdoor space/summer shows. Bridge - listed building; for sale, structurally not safe. Listed buildings restricted/limited/more expensive. Urban beach by canal. Bars/restaurants. Music culture plays big part - recording studios. Quaternary/tertiary industry. More successful than Gas Street Basin; more green spaces. Area for eating out - quite, seasonal, canals cleaned in the summer. Roman tower heritage part of Manchester. More attractive in evenings.

Fieldwork - questionnaire - commuting distance/ environmental survey - building design/ Pedestrian count - different times, donut effect,evenings, bars, housing/building survey - annotated photograph/ Crime rate/land use map - label buildings, functions/how many live in the area/compare with past - census records/ oral history.

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Spinning Fields

Heavily redeveloped. Used to be for textiles. Only completed in last year. Science and industry museum. financial district. Rebuilt quarter. Like Brindley Place but bigger. Businesses - land use. Restaurants - types of people they're aimed at. Buildings often multiple use. Modern buildings - fit in with each other more; wouldn't be dated in 50 years. Green space/open. Lunch places/ designer shops/ Manchester Crown Court/accountancy ferms/

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'Something for Everyone.' Taster sessions for the public. Facilities good - hold badminton/basketball - versatile. Popular junior club - gives children skills/enjoyment. Hold big events which are widely recognised. Manchester's bid for 2000 Olympics. Opened in 1994. 1996 - busiest. Cater for clubs/hen/stag nights. 3150 seats/10 badminton courts/boxing and wrestling/rock concerts. Always been defect - 1996 - £200,000. More success = less deficit. Team GB - £250 an hour..

BMX - funding from Manchester council etc. Budget - £24m outside - public realm area links to metro station/velopark. £19m on building. International standard. Deprivation combat - urban expression on Saturday night - graffitti artists/scooters/skates attracts 75 - 100 locals. Sport England funding and UK sport. Velodrome sat on disused coal fire station. Catalyst for all other regeneration - helped win bid for Commonwealth Games.

MCFC regeneration. New 6th form college built - owned by owners of FC. 1902 - backstreet stadium - Man U. Moved from 19 - 55 staff. New cafe. £30,000 on tarmac.

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Commonwealth Games in 2002 - Manchester's biggest event. Olympics 3 times bigger. Most successful example of leaving legacy. Sports and events venue. Bigger in size than 10 years ago. Retail centre. Partnership agreements - ete ad stadium opened in 2003; change in capacity. Home of MCFC. FC with temporary athletics use. Biggest events - concerts, commercially huge.

Manchester Regional Arena - warm up facility for athletes in 02. Opened in 04. Parolympic world cup. Wheelchair basketball. Extensive community programme. National Squash Arena. Institute of Sport. Manchester Tennis Centre - 6 indoor courts.

Velodrome - oldest in Sport City. Built for Olympic bid. 400 events a year. 4.5m visitors. Opened in 02 - Asda - 60,000 new jobs. 2002 - first year in over 100 when there was positive population growth in East Manchester. Old site - Bradford colliery closed in 1968. Gas industry big. 400 years of coal industry. New academy complex in MFC. 1998 - site was derelict. 1975 - 85 - peak period of decline. housing market collapsed. 30min walk from city of Manchester - huge advantage. New employment. Commonwealth Games one programme in a very hollistic programme of regeneration. 

Velopark - cycling disciplines using green park. Light rail - transport links - live by end of 2012. East carpark - major casino led development worth £276m. Hotel accomadation/offices. Scheme collapsed as Brown withdrew support. Former Clayton Annalyee site - removing foundations/mix shafts to construct training complex in Jan. 2013. 

Population peak for East Manchester end of 19th century - housing in localised areas - demolished by 1980s. New East Manchester Regeneration Company; bringing new population to the city. Housing schemes going through. Want more students to stay in Manchester - bring in more stability. 550 new homes in Beswick. 

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Squash Court

2008- World Squash Championships. Can easily be adapted. Available for everyone to use. Open to public. Indoor arena. 'No white elephants,' everything utilised after Commonwealth Games. Bike shows/music venue/thai festivals. English Institute of Sport - elite athletic/cycling people. UK athletics based. 

Manchester Athletics Arena - warm up track for Games. Athletics track taken out of main stadium to add in 10,000 seats. Clash with football/athletics Man C. now gone to another stadium. Athletics/football events have minimum attendance. Contribute to community - glowworld. Funded by sports England and city council. Created 6,500 jobs from Commonwealth Central Park/restaurant. Supercasino now there for future developments; now looking like hotel/restaurants/retail 'las vegas' feel. House prices risen.

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Trafford Centre

At one stage, biggest shopping centre in the country. Opened in 1998. 27 months to build. Built on M60 - orbital motorway - 45min drive of Trafford Centre - 43 miles. 280 shops. 2000 free car parking spaces. 20 screen cinema. Themed eating areas. Eating area; orient - 1600 seats. 25 restaurants. 7000 employed including 160 cleaners. 

Background - On Trafford industrial estate. Wanted to make a statement - domes lit up O.T.T. Classical Roman. Bypasses the shipcanal. Plans first put in 1986 but kept getting rejected. Took 10 years from proposal - traffic constant problem; orbital motorway not completed, retail impact on city centre, could have created jobs through industry instead. Created because of the Manchester bomb in CBD - redeveloped this too. Use of 3,000 construction workers from North West. 

General - £600m - has its own electricity supply. Selfridges/John Lewis. Never been connected to the Metro Link - too far away. Idea of metro is to make CBD successful not Trafford Centre. Although connected by bus.85% come by car. Family leisure experience - creche. Dodgems. Inside - grand design. Casino style. 

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Salford Quays

Restaurants/hotels/housing. Manufacturing industry. Connected to Trafford industrial estate. Renovated from 1985 onwards. Block paving, areas of grass, hear the birds (!). Helixer - oxygen - canal water. High end housing desirable. Prices cheap. Much more open than Castle Fields. Link to Metro. Big office spaces. Watersports in the canal. Leisure facilities. Eating out places. 6 hotels. Boat keeping. Lots of seating - wide promenade on waters edge. 3 story houses. Apartments. Bringing in more affordable housing. BBC. Sustainable - not many cars - metro; accessible. 3 big bridges. Keeping things that show the heritage - kept swing bridge. Lowry- chimney; smoke. BBC sport. Decentralisation. Spaces. ITV building. Street furniture - imperial war museum. Famous for design.

Fieldwork - Before/after archive photos. Oral history. Pedestrian count. Building survey - prices of houses; mixture of houses. Land use map. Environmental survey. Water canal - compare to ship canal; been damned off to create basins. Wildlife. 

Tertiary jobs - office. Flagship developments - Lowry/BBC. Questionnairre. Connected to CBD. Designer outlet. Flagship projects - building quality.

Secondary Data - Crime rates - not a lot to go on in the past. Leaflets. Office of National Statistics - deprivation/employment figures. Ordinance Survey - website.Articles - time of closure etc. Open water swimming. 

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Salford Quays - Imperial War Museum/Lowry

Imperial War Museum - Wide demographic of visitors. Daniel Libeskind - prolific architect. Globe shattered by conflict - up to interpretation; metaphorical/environmental.  Air shards - war in air/optical illusions. Disorientation. Low ceiling. Opened in 2002 - different landscape then. Separate to central area - connection to WW1. Parts of lancaster bombers made near. Manchester ship canal build before - 1888- 1893. Bridge, Trafford Park. Past importance. Cade - trying to fit in with building's surroundings; common themes. Also cinema - Big Picture.

Lowry - Designed by Michael Wilford. Like oceanliner. Purple/orange/green. Art centre - minor part. Theatre. Outlet mall. Lowry came from Salford.

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Charlottte Dykes


great thanks! x

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