managing rural change

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factors influencing level of development ECONOMIC

LANGTON GROVE FARM, EYE, 

  • EU funding children's nursery in 1996 in disused farm buildings 
  • rural development grant from DEFRA
  • building 'pets corner' + new swimming pool 
  • creation of 17 new jobs 
  • parents of 60 children went back to work (therefore contribute back to economy)
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factors influencing level of development POLITICAL

city CURITIBA, 

suffers from constant influx of migrants from rural - find hard to get jobs as no qualifications

APPROACH SCHEMES 

  • social workers offer migrants free bus journeys home 
  • eliminate countryside PUSH FACTORS (rural village programme) 

RURAL VILLAGE PROGRAMME 

  • seasonal farm workers kept in countryside 
  • big areas of land bought + divided into 5000m2 plots 
  • 74,000 people (15,000 families) benefited 

ESCOLA DO CAMPO 

  • school opened to give professional qualifications to young farmers to share with families 
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factors influencing level of development POLITICAL

RATE RELIEF (loacal services pay reduced rates)

ST EDMUNDSBURY 

  • 6 rural settlements targeted for rural growth 
  • receive up to 100% relief 
  • keep businesses open --> create sustainability --> attracting people 

CAP of EU (subsidies for crops and livestock + coordinate local farming output)

REPLACED by single payment scheme for each hectare farmed 

  • Upper Wensleydale (£20-£40 per hect.)
  • Lower Wensleydae (£210-£230 per hect.)
  • allows greater fulfilment of demand --> economic developmet 
  • receduces intense farming --> higher quality produce --> sustainable farming 
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factors influencing level of development ENVIRO.

UPPER WENSLEYDALE 

  • isolated and remote 
  • closest supermarket 26km away 
  • poor climate - quality of land poor (steep slopes, acidic soils, hill sheep farming, high rainfall)
  • unsuitable for economic deveopment - inconvenient A684 + Pennine hills 

RESULTS 

  • ageing pop.
  • economic decline 
  • number of telecottaging 
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factors influencing level of development SOCIAL

BORROWDALE VALLEY, CUMBRIA 

OUTMIGRATION 

  • falling pop. / decline in threshold pop. / services close / spiral of decline 
  • ageing pop. / few economically active / dereliction 

OXOFORD 

INMIGRATION 

  • inc. due to transport development (park + ride) ideal for commuters 
  • retail developments: Oxford science park, hotels, conemas, bowls complex, leisure pool 
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negative decline DUFTON

FOOTHILLS OF PENNINES 

  • remote inaccessible 
  • 169 people 
  • 3 children with no school
  • 1/3 second home ownership --> loss of community cohesion 
  • ageing pop. 

SERVICE LOSS 

  • pub has diversified + amalgamated as post office closed --> also COTTAGES 
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positive growth TEMPLE SOWERBY

NEXT TO A66, 13KM FROM PENRITH 

  • rural-urban fringe 
  • 2006 by-pass opened --> traffic conjection dec.+ population inc. 
  • highly accessible
  • commuter village 
  • money received from council --> EDUCATION + MEDICAL 
  • 6 daily buses 

INCREASED SERVICES 

  • higher critical threshold --> rising house price / new housing estate 
  • range: hotel, inn, B&B, surgery ...
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Allerdale district of Cumbria (Borrowdale and Derw

POP. DECLINE - Ageing 2001 (11 people aged 30) 2011 (14 aged 30 + 10 aged 64)

environmental 

  • isolated + poor accessibility (B5289 conjested with summer tourists + snow)
  • cold climate (only pastoral sheep farming) + bare rock, thin soils, steep slopes 

economic 

  • traditional outputs (pastoral, quarrying, forestry) declining + limited alternatives to TOURISM 

social 

  • services falling (Critical thresholds not met) 1981-2006 83.3% decrease in post offices in Derwent + Cocker valley --> dec. in retailing --> dec. in jobs available --> social cohesion 

HELP SCHEMES 

  • Allerdale borough council - inc. tax on 2nd homes by dec. council tax discount (50% - 10%)
  • money used to reduce bus fares + support the market towns initiative 
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economic negative growth - OXFORD

rural-urban fringe 

  • pop. 150,000 / university town / hi-tech R+D / car maufacture 

expansion rural-urban fringe CAUSE (EFFECT)

  • housing development --> blackbird leys (people moveing in, lack of social cohesion, inc price)
  • industrial parks --> Oxford sicence park (dec. farmland + less jobs for locals)
  • recreation --> oxford United 
  • service --> oxford retail park (out-compete local serives + shops) 
  • transport development --> Park + ride 

ISSUES 

  • loss of farmland / loss of recreational land / pressure on existing villages / economic change
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environmental negative growth - the TRIMLEYS

WHY IS THERE A NEED?

  • pop growth / inc. life / 2nd home inc. / 500,000 new homes built 2001-2021 / dock workers

ENVIRO IMPACTS 

  • inc. impermeable surfaces - inc. flood risk of RIVER ORWELL  
  • removal of veg. ---> soil erosion ---> water pollution 
  • pollutants from construction 
  • inc. traffic levels ---> inc. noise pollution 
  • greenfield sites used 

MANAGEMENT 

  • permission only if studies on environmental impact given out 
  • inc. ransport to reduce traffic 
  • landscape improvements + enriched habitats reduce flooding + counteract gree space lost 

DIFFICULTIES - dvelopment out of proportion / rural character lost / limit greenfield space 

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agricultural practice change EAST ANGLIA

  • during 1970's - 1980's EU's CAP gave farmers incentives to increase yield of arable crops 
  • INTENSIFICATION used to reach goals + AMALGAMATIONS of small farms to inc efficiency 
  • loss of woodland + hedgerows + water pollution 

environmental impacts - EUTROPHICATION + decrease in BIODIVERSITY 

  • SOIL EROSION, DERELICTION + increase in farm buildings leads to OVERLAND FLOODING 

management by agri-environemental policies 

  • environmentally sensitive areas (ESA's)-farmers agree to farm in sensitive way + receive grants
  • envrionemental stewardship (ES) - replaced ESA's + funded farmers if delivered effective envrionemental management 
  • diversification grants  (avg . £10,000 per farm) area payments - dec. intensification (per Ha)
  • custodians of landscape - protect / conserve landscape 

management problems - farmer income + output reduced / only flat-rate payment 

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traffic problems A140 NORWICH - IPSWICH

  • links two counties together (90km carriageway + 3km of duel carriageway)

increase in traffic: 

  • lorries (15%) due to conainerisation of felixstowe 1970's-80's 
  • tourism (norfolk broads) + farming traffice 

enviro, econ + social problems 

  • air + noise pollution / habitat loss, roads run pass resident housing dec in house pricing 

managament 

  • Brome (3 cameras since 2009 with 9 deaths) 
  • Harford park + ride reduces traffic numbers 
  • Suffolk c.c intriduce mini bus scheme to rural villages + 
  • Long Stratton 30mph speed limit with double yellow lines 

problems with management (cross-council management needed)

  • lack of funding / norfolk c.c took over bypass management + hasnt been built / little space 
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recreation, leisure + tourism NORFOLK BROADS

why has toursim / recreation grown? (rural tourism has offered £3.5 Bn to EA economy)

  • open landscapes + woodlands provide rich wildlife habitat 
  • 100's of nature reserves + SSSI's
  • historic heritage - framlingham castle / sutton hoo 

environemental impacts 

  • water pollution / habitat loss / land erosion / hedgerow removal 

management 

  • CAP + agri-environemental policies + extra payments to farmers (ESA's / ES' / custodians)
  • Boards authority try to reduce salt water incursions 
  • 2+ M visitors (encouraged + informed) / 5-9 km speed restrictions / 1988 conservation status

problems with managements 

  • inc. number of boats inc. pollution + habitat loss + erosion 
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