MANAGERS / LEADERSHIP / DECISION MAKING

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  • Created on: 03-04-16 16:02

4 BASIC PRINCIPLES

PLANNING 

ORGANISING

DIRECTING

CONTROLLING

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PLANNING

SETTING OBJECTIVES / TARGETS

ANAYLYSE DATA - E.G. FORECASTS KEY DATA - COMPETITOR PRICES / PRODUCTS

DRAW UP PLANS FUNCTIONAL AREAS BUSINESS - FINANCE - HELP ACHIEVE OBJECTIVES

ESTIMATE RESOURCE NEEDS PROPOSED PLAN

REDUCE CHANCE PROJECT FAILING

HIGHLIGHT PROBLEMS - TAKE ACTIONS

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ORGANIZING

ASSEMBLING RESOURCES

MANAGEMENT DECIDE WHO DO WHAT

RESOURCES ESSENTIAL - PLAN CAREFULLY USE MINIMUM RESOURCES ACHIEVE 

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DIRECTING

LEADING EMPLOYEES THROUGH MOTIVATION & COMMUNICATION

MOTIVATION WILLING ACHIEVE TARGET / GOAL - INSENTIVE

COMMUNICATION: ECHANGE INFO - ACHIEVE HIGH LEVEL PRODUCTIVITY

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CONTROLLING

MANAGERS REVIEW & REPORT PEFROMANCE

COMPARE OBJECTIVES OTHER BUSINESS

FINANCIAL REPORTS: INTERESTED PARTYS INFO SALES - LEGAL REQUIREMENT

EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE: INFO PRODUCTIVITY - SUPPLYING SERVICE - VITAL MEASUREMENT

SOCIAL: BEHAVING ETHICALLY - MINIMISE POLLUTION MAKE JOBS

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MINTZBERGS - INTERPERSONAL

FIGUREHEAD: REPRESENT COLLEAGUES - SOCIAL CEREMONIAL LEGAL REPSONSIBILITIES

LEADER: CREATES MAINTAIN EFFECTIVE WORK ENVIORNMENT / MANAGE PEFROMANCE RESPONSIBILITIES / MOTIVATE & DEVELOP JUNIOR EMPLOYEES

LIAISON: COMMUNICATE ENTERNAL / EXTERNAL CONTACTS / NETWORK EFFECTIVLEY GATHER INFO

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MINTBERG - DECISIONAL

ENTEPRENEUR: PLANS INITIATE CHANGE

DISTURBANCE HANDLER: SOLVE & CONTROL CRISIS / RESOLVE DISPUTES 

RESOURCE ALLOCATOR: MAKES DECISONS BEST USE RESOURCES

NEGOTIATOR: NEGOTIATE INTERNAL / EXTERNAL BUSINESS

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MINTZBERG - INFORMATIONAL

MONITOR: SEARCH INFO RELEVANT BUISINESS / LOOK AFTER TEAM

DISSEMINATOR: PASS ON VALUABLE INFO

SPOKESPERSON: SPEAKS FOR ORGANISATION

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BLAKE MOUTON GRID

COUNTRY CLUB: WORK ENVIORMENT RELAXED - WORK MAY SUFFER LACK CONTROL

TEAM LEADER: HIGH FOCUS TASK & PEOPLE - GETS JOB DONE

PRODUCE OR PERISH: TASK MOST IMPORTANT REGARDLESS PEOPLE

IMPOVERISHED: LOW CONCERN PEOPLE & TASK - INEFFECTIVE NO FOCUS JOB

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AUTOCRATIC

ASSUMES INFO AND DECISION MAKING TOP ORGANISATION

  • ONE WAY COMMUNICATION
  • MINIMAL DELEGATION 
  • CLOSE SUPERVISION

MARTHA STEWART

DIFFICUTLIES

  • PEOPLE AVOID MAKING DECISIONS
  • COMMITESS MORE DIFFICUT DISMISS ALL MEMBERS WRONG DECISION
  • SENIOR MANAGERS OVER WORKED
  • BIGGER HARDER 
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LAISSEZ FAIRE

EMPLOYEES EMPOWERED MAKE MOST DECISIONS

EMPLOYEES MAKE DECISIONS WITHOUT CHECKING SUPERIOR 

PAUL ALLEN - MICROSOFT CO FOUNDER

EMPLOYERS TEND INDEPENDANT 

LACK SENSE DIRECTION COARDINATION PLANNING

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DEMOCRATIC

LEADER SHARING DECICIOSN MAKING ABILITIES

EMPLOYEES ENCOURAGED TAKE PARK

TWO WAY COMNNUCATION

OBAMA

MOTIVATES EMPLOYEES - PRODUCTIVITY / RAISING MORALE

COVERTLY MANIPULATE EMPLOYEES

NATURE COMPLEX

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TYPES OF DECISIONS

PROGRAMMED

NON-PROGRAMMED

STRATEGIC

TACTICAL

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PROGRAMMED

DEAL PROBLEMS FAMILIAR WHERE INFO REQUIRED EASY OBTAIN

WELL STRUCTURED: PROCEDURES / RULES

RECORDING PROGRAMMS 

EMPLOYEES KNOW HOW MUCH AND WHEN

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NON-PROGRAMMED

SITUATIONS UNSTRUCTURED

REQUIRE UNIQUE SOLOUTION

USUALLY RISKY

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DATA

SCIENTIFICALLY BASED DATA & OUTCOMES COMPARED INITIAL OBJECTIVES

REDUCES RISK EXPENSIVE MISTAKES

LOGICAL & STRUCTURED APPROACH 

COSTLY & TIME CONSUMING

COLLECTING & ANALYSING DATA

DATA MUST BE RELIABLE

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TACTICAL

SHORT TERM

TAKEN REGULARLY

LESS COMMITMENT

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INTUITIVE

HUNCH 

SENSE - EXPEREINCE 

QUICKLY, NEW SITUATION NOT MUCH DATA

RISKY MISTAKES / IRRATIONAL

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DECISION TREES

MATHS MODEL SHOW POSSIBLE OUTCOMES

DIFFERENT OPTIONS / CONSEQUENCES

LOGICAL BASED EVIDENCE / LOGICAL COMPARISON

ONLY FINANCIAL DATA

ESTIMATE - OPEN MANIPULATION

RANGE OUTCOMES UNCLEAR - UNPROGRAMMED DECISION

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INFLUENCES DECISION MAKING

THE BUSINESS MISSION & OBJECTIVE

RISK TAKING

EXTERNAL ENVIORMENT

ETHICS

RESOURCES

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THE BUSINESS MISSION & OBJECTIVE

FIGUREHEAD: REPRESENT COLLEAGUES - SOCIAL CEREMONIAL LEGAL REPSONSIBILITIES

LEADER: CREATES MAINTAIN EFFECTIVE WORK ENVIORNMENT / MANAGE PEFROMANCE RESPONSIBILITIES / MOTIVATE & DEVELOP JUNIOR EMPLOYEES

LIAISON: COMMUNICATE ENTERNAL / EXTERNAL CONTACTS / NETWORK EFFECTIVLEY GATHER INFO

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EXTERNAL ENVIORNMENT

COMPETITION 

CONSUMING INTEREST RATES

BUSINESS UNDERGOING CHANGE MAY LEAD DELAY 

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RISK TAKING

MANAGERS CAUTIOUS

LIKELY GATHER MORE DATA

LOW RISK DONE QUICKLY

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RESOURCES

INFO TIME LABOUR MATERIALS

BEST DECISION LIMITED RESOUCES

EFFECT INCOME

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ETHICS

MORAL GUIDELINES

STRONG INFLUENCE

IMMORAL DECISIONS SPREAD QUICKLY

2014 M&S MOST EHICAL

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STAKEHOLDER GROUP & NEEDS

SHAREHOLDER: INCREASE DIVIDENDS & VALUE SHARE / PREFERENTIAL TREATMENT

EMPLOYEES: HIGH WAGES / JOB SECURITY / P.T. 

CUSTOMERS: LOW PRICE / RELIABILITY / SALE PRODUCTS / AFTER SALE SERVICES

SUPPLIERS: FREQUENT REGUAL ORDERS / SOLE SUPPLIER AGREEMENT / FAIR PRICE

LENDERS: DEBT PAID / PROFITABLE RETURN / 

COMMUNITY: STEADY EMPLOYMENT / AVOID POLLUTION / FACILITIES

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STAKEHOLDERS

ANYONE WITH INTEREST 

SHAREHOLDERS OWNERS PROVIDE CAPTIAL

INTERNAL: EMPLOYEES / OWNERS / MANAGEERS

EXTERNAL: LOCAL COMMUNITY / SUPPLIERS / CUSTOMERS / LENDERS / GOVERNMENT / SHAREHOLDERS

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DECISION CUT COSTS

EMPLOYEES: PRESSURE REDUCE WAGE / MORE JOBS SUCCESFUL

CUSTOMERS: LOW PRICES QUALITY REDUCE

SHAREHOLDERS: INREASE PROFITS / CUSTOMERS DISLIKE JOB LOSES

SUPPLIERS: REDUCED PRICES / SEEK ALTERNATIVE

CREDITORS: REDUCED NEED BORROW / NEED BORROW SHORT TIME 

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DECISION EXPAND PRODUCTION

EMPLOYEES: MORE JOBS / PROMOTIONS

CUSTOMERS: NEW PRODUCTS / INCREASE PRODUCTION REDUCE PRICES

SHAREHOLDERS: CUT SHORT TERM PROFITS LONG TERM INCREASE

SUPPLIERS: LARGE REGULAR ODERS / EXPECTATION REDUCED PRICE

CREDITORSBORROWING HARDER PAY BACK  / INCREASE PROFT

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DECISION RAISE PRICES

EMPLOYEES: INCREASE WAGES / SALES DECLINE - JOB LOSS

CUSTOMERS: LESS VALUE TOO EXPENSIVE

SHAREHOLDERS PROFITS SHARES DIVIDENDS INCREASE / SALES DECLINE

SUPPLIERSPOSSIBILITY HIGHER PRICE / ORDER MAY FALL

CREDITORS: INCREASE PROFITS SUPPORT PROMPT PAYMENT / DEBT UNPAID

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INTERNAL FACTORS - BUSINESS OBJECTIVES

STRONGEST INFLUENCE

COMMITED PURSUNIG ETHICAL & SOCIAL OBJECTIVES HIGH PRIORITY MEETING THEM

MAXIMISING PROFITS SEEK MINIMISE COSTS - NOT ALL OBJECTIVES MET

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INTERNAL FACTORS - MANAGEMENT & LEADERSHIP STYLES

AUTOCRATIC FOCUS NEEDS EMPOYEES

SHAREHOLDERS LITTLE CONCERN - LEAD RESENTMENT

DEMOCRACY FOSTER BETTER LONG TERM RELATIONSHIP

MOST STAKEHOLDERS BENEFIT COMMUNICATION

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INTERNAL FACTORS - MANAGEMENT & LEADERSHIP STYLES

AUTOCRATIC FOCUS NEEDS EMPOYEES

SHAREHOLDERS LITTLE CONCERN - LEAD RESENTMENT

DEMOCRACY FOSTER BETTER LONG TERM RELATIONSHIP

MOST STAKEHOLDERS BENEFIT COMMUNICATION

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EXTERNAL - POWER STAKEHOLDER GROUP

CONSIDERABLE POWER

SIZE SHARES INFLUENTIAL DECISION MAKING

MANAGE RELATIONSHIPS MAJOR SUPPLIERS & CUSTOMERS EFFECTIVLEY 

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EXTERNAL - MARKET CONDITIONS

LEVEL SALES - RATE CHANGING 

INTENSE COMPEITION - DISTINCT REPUTATION

ESTABLISH STRONG FINANCE

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EXTERNAL - GOVERNMENT POLICIES

SUBSTAINS INFLUENCE WIDE RANGE BUSINESS MANAGE RELATIONSHIPS STAKEHOLDDERS

LAWS LESS FORMAL CODES CONDUCT GUIDE

ORGINALLY OWNED GOVERNMENT - GOVERNMENT SOME CONTROL E.G. CANT RAISE PRICES

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INTEREST

MINIMAL EFFORT: NOT POWERFUL / FIND OUT INFO (UNSKILLED EMPLOYEES)

KEEP INFORMED: NOT HUGE AMOUNT POWER INTEREST ACTIVITIES - MANAGERS KEEP INFORMED (NON-UNIONISED EMPLOYEES) 

KEEP SATISFIED: POWERFUL NOT MUCH INTEREST. INTERESTED HIGH FINANCIAL REUTNRS - MANAGERS ENAGE & CONSULT THEM (NATIONAL MEDIA / BANKS)

KEY PLAYERS: MOST POWERFUL & INTERESSTED - MAJOR INFLUENCE (UNIONISED EMPLOYEES MAJORITY SHAREHOLDERS)

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STAKEHOLDER MAPPING

MINIMAL EFFORT: NOT POWERFUL - E.G. SUPPLY LOW VALUE MATERIALS

KEEP INFORMED: INTERESTED ACTIVITIES NO POWER - E.G. RESIDENTS CONCERNED IMPACT

KEEP SATISFIED: GREAT INTEREST NOT MUCH POWER - ENGAGE & CONSULT INCREASE INTEREST

KEY PLAYERS: MOST POWERFUL & INTERESTED - MAJOR INFLUENCE - KEEP HAPPY E.G. HIGH LEVEL INVESTOR

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MINZTBERG INTERNATIONAL

MONITOR: SEARCH INFO RELEVANT BUISINESS / LOOK AFTER TEAM

DISSEMINATOR: PASS ON VALUABLE INFO

SPOKESPERSON: SPEAKS FOR ORGANISATION

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