prediction- earthquakes, volcanoes and tsunamis
earthquakes: Predicting when earthquakes will occur is currently impossible but there can be clues when an earthquake is about to happen. The clues can be small tremors, cracks appearing in rocks or animals behaving strangely such as rats abandoning nests
Earthquake warning systems can also be used they can detect P waves but only after the earthquakes had begun. These waves travel faster than any other type of seismic waves and cause less damage so they can be used as a warning for stronger tremors
volcanoes: it is possible to predict when a volcanic eruption is about to happen because tiny earthquakes or changes in shape of the volcano may occur meaning that the volcano may get bulges where the magma is building up.
tsunamis: A tsunami warning system relies on an earthquake detection system. If an earthquake occurs under an ocean then it is likely to cause a tsunami, which will mean that a warning is issued
good detection systems will give people time to evacuate but they do rely on good communicaiton systems. if people dont recieve the message they will not evacuate leading to higher death tolls
building techniques- earthquakes, volcanoes and ts
earthquakes: buildings can be designed to withstand earthquakes by using strong materials such as concrete or special foundations that absorbs and earthquakes energy such as rubber
volcanoes: buildings can’t be designed to withstand lava and pyroclastic flows but they can be strengthened so that they are less likely to collapse from the weight of falling ash. It is sometimes possible to divert the lava away from settlements by using barriers
tsunamis: buildings that has raised and open foundations that is made out of strong materials such as concrete. walls have been buily around settlements to protect them but they are not protective if they are overtopped
Planning and education
Future developments e.g new houses can be planned to avoid the most at risk areas Emergency services can be trained and prepared for disasters Governments can plan evacuation routes. Governments and other organisations can educate people about what to do if there's a disaster and how to evacuate.
Factors that increase severity
development of a country: Impacts are high in developing countries because they don’t have the money for disaster preparation or response. They have no money to spend on training the emergency teams. The buildings are poorer quality in developing countries so they are more easily damaged. Infrastructure is often poorer making it more difficult for emergency services to reach the most affected area. Healthcare isn't as good in developing countries so they struggle to treat large numbers of casualties. Many people depend on agriculture in developing countries which are badly affects by eruptions and tsunamis. However the economic impacts are usually worse in more developed countries because the buildings and infrastructure are worth a lot of money
population: The more people in an area the more people will be affected. Densely populated areas such as cities have a lot of buildings. Collapsing buildings pose a risk to life
timing: Depending on the day or time of year then these disasters can have serious impacts