Primary industry - take it - raw materials extracted from land / sea e.g. a farmer
Secondary industry - make it - raw materials processed / changed into another product e.g. a boat builder
Tertiary industry - sell it - provide a service (retail, nursing, etc.) e.g. a bank manager
Quaternary industry - creative + knowledge-based industries that provide information + expert help e.g. a medical research worker
MEDCs usually have a large tertiary industry whilst LEDCs have a large primary industry.
Changing employment structure of the UK (1800 to 2000)
The UK was pre-industrialised in the 1800s, where there was 75% primary industry. During the industrial revolution, the UK became more industrialised, which caused a large decrease in primary industry and an increase in secondary industry. This is because the UK has become industrialised and wealthy, so therefore can afford to import raw materials from other countries. Now the largest area of employment is tertiary industry.
Clark Fisher Model
The Clark Fisher Model explains changes in employment structure + shows 3 stages as a country develops: pre-industrialised, industrial + post-industrial
As income rises, people consume more services + the tertiary sector grows + develops.
Variations in employment are affected by...
- Wealth of a country + wage costs
- Investment in manufacturing companies
- Socio-economic groupings of people
Problems of the Clark Fisher Model
- Assumes development has a straight path, but levels of income + economic groups differ
- Some countries may develop further than 'post-industrial'
- Development speed varies between countries
- Some LEDCs have a large tertiary industry (due to a large tourist industry) but less developed secondary + primary industries
Industrialising + deindustrialising case studies
Mexico - industrialising
In the 1950s, there was less wealth from agriculture + more income generated from manufacturing e.g. vehicles. Recently, there has been a lot of chemical production + food processing. Manufacturers were drawn to Mexico due to...
- Large + skilled workforce
- Large consumer market
- Low distribution costs
- Close to govt. decision makers
Germany - deindustrialised
Features of deindustrialisation are a decline in secondary industry, which leads to job losses, + a growth of the tertiary + quaternary industry. Deindustrialisation creates different pattern of employment.
During the 1970s + 1980s, manufacturing moved to lower cost sites e.g. overseas. The services sectors + financial services grew. Now, the income generation from tertiary and quaternary industry is 70%. The income generation from primary industry is only 1%.
Informal economy case study
NICs have developed large manufacturing industries very quickly -> GDPs + exports grow rapidly. Urbanisation increases the % of people living in towns + cities.
Advantages of Asia for industrial location:
- Transport - main shipping lines using containers, so cost is reduced
- Cheap labour - reliable workers with long hours
- Govt - discourage the import of manufactured goods + encourage import of tech.
- Market - factories export products
The INFORMAL ECONOMY is poorly paid, may include child labour, no health and safety + may be illegal. India is dependent on the informal economy as it is a source of income that provides jobs + is done by the majority. An example of a job is washing clothes.
Benefits of working in the formal industry in an MEDC is that it has a higher wage, health + safety, a large variety + opportunities for promotion.
Disadvantages of working in the informal economy in an LEDC are that there is a low income + no health + safety. Advantages are that you don't pay tax, no formal skills required + it's easy to start working.
Changing industry in LEDCs case study
Employment change in India
India's economy is growing at a fast rate. Cities like Mumbai and Dehli are employment magnets + industrial hubs. Manufacturing has moved to developing countries.
Advantages are that they attract migrants + economies have become diverse. However, disadvantages are that there is overpopulation + extreme poverty due to an increased population. There is also more pollution + a lack of sanitation.
Mumbai is the commercial capital of India with many large companies located there. People employed there have a high average yearly income.
Mumbai's economy has diversified...
- Aerospace, renewable energy, medical research, engineering
- Major satellite + television networks based there
- Specialised industries with modern infrastructure + skilled workers
- Now includes healthcare + industry
As a result of high wage costs + increasing land prices, textile mills have closed.
Brownfield + greenfield sites
Many brownfield sites are in urban areas in Northern England.
Disadvantages of developing on brownfield sites:
- Land is expensive to develop on (due to clean-up costs) e.g. it may be contaminated
- Some brownfield sites have to be reclaimed + this can be a barrier to development
- Wildlife habitats may be destroyed + public green space lost
- Inner-city brownfield sites could increase pollution when developed on, decreasing tourism
Advantages of developing on brownfield sites:
- Reduces urban sprawl
- Improves urban environment as appearance is improved
- Building houses reduces housing demand
Advantages of building on greenfield sites are that they are cheaper to build on (no clean-up costs). Disadvantages are that it encourages urban sprawl, countryside is built on + congestion is increased as people commute from the countryside to the city.
Brownfield site case study
Birmingham has many brownfield sites.
Regeneration options for brownfield sites:
- Wildlife habitats e.g. woodlands
- Housing - old warehouses made into flats
- Flood control
- Recreational areas e.g. parks
- Retailing e.g. shopping centres
- Tyre storage facility (1916) + closed in the 1980s
- Village called 'Tyretown' was developed around the site - met workers needs - cinema, sports club, concert hall
In 2002, planning permission was received at Fort Dunlop. The AIM was that mixed-use development would create a sustainable 24-hour community.The RESULTS were that there is a 100-bed hotel, a business park (commercial office space), restaurants + cafes + local environment has been improved.
- Making 'green' products from natural renewable materials / recycled goods
- Offering 'green' services e.g. eco-tourism
- Constructing 'green' buildings - use less energy, recycle water (rainwater harvesting), built from natural materials
- Quaternary services - architects design 'green' buildings
Green employment consists of...
- Attempts to improve air + water quality
- Recycle + reduce waste
- Promote green tourism + conservation
- Improves environment
'Green' buildings have...
- Micro wind turbine/solar panel - renewable energy (wind /sun) produces electricity
- Double glazing/insulation - maintains constant temperature, so heating costs reduced
- Rainwater harvesting tank - recycles water
Industrial output - how industrialised a country is
Industrialisation - agriculture develops + begins to depend on manufacturing industries. It's a social + economic process that uses machinery.
Informal economy - economic activity not monitored / taxed by the govt + is not included in the country's GNP
Brownfield site - area of land that has been built on before
Greenfield site - an area of land that hasn't been built on before
Urban sprawl - spread of urban area into the countryside