Sketch artists, photofit (various peoples features choose from to create), e-fit (synthesising images creating facial composites), evofit (holistic face model, evolves as changes are made)
Looked at photos of celebs unknown to them 6 actors, 4 pop singers
2 days later- described and did composite using either efit, pro-fit, sketch, evo-fit or FACES
3 tasks- naming, sorting (matching to photo) and line up from composites given
Sketch best in naming and sorting
E-fit bettet in line up but not significantly.
Composites poor quality e.g 5% matched correctly for pro-fit.
Interviewing Witness- FactorsInfluencingIdentifica
Estimator Variables- variables judicial system has no control of (distance from crime)
System Variables- variables judicial system has control of (leading q's)
Schemas-interfere filling in gaps of what we think we saw. Stored ideas of what we expect to find - can distort testimony.
Weapon focus- witness focus on weapon more than offenders face so identification decreased.
Threat of object or unusualness of object create weapon focus?
Watch video from hair salon. - man walks in hands receptionist money.
Holding: Nothing, Scissors, Handgun, Wallet, Raw Chicken
10 mins- filled questionaire- who was in control, describing man, picking him from a line up
No difference in discription accuracy low threat - high threat
Accuracy poorer in unusualness conditions (chicken & handgun)
Concluded unusualness causes weapon focus.
Interviewing Witness- Cognitive Interview
Encoding, Specificity, Hypothesis and context reinstatement - better recall if in same place/ emotional state as when memory was encoded.
Use triggers to retrive info- to help try changing order of event (tell backwards) change perspective of how the witnessed event.
Report everything even if irrelevant
Geiselman & Fisher
Showed film - interviewed 2 days later
Recalled more items using cognitive interview but also recalled more errors. Compared to standard interview and hypnosis.
Interviewing Suspect- Detecting Lies
Lies: stutturing, hesitation, no eye contact, look away, look to right, exaggerating,covering mouth
Crocodile tears- pretend to be a witness/victim to cover guilt of crime
Vrij & Mann
52 police officers - Netherlands
8 clips of press conferences where releatives appealed for missing person/ info about murder.
Asked: if lying, how confident in their decision, could they understand the english, any behavioural cues
3 officers accurate at lie detection 80%
25 officers 60%
3 officers 20%
1 officer 0%
can conclude 49/52 officers guessing as only those above 60% are detecting more than guessing
Classic interrogation manual recomends: small room, 3 chairs, desk, clear walls - creates sense of exposure, unfamilliarity, isolation
Interrogator establishes baseline responses and observes verbal and non verbal behaviour when relaxed.
Inbau's 9 steps for interrogation.
Chance to shift blame.
Interrupt denial of guilt.
Ignore alibis - use to force guilt.
Eye contact use 1st names.
Offer alternatives + see suspects reaction.
Give two choices both suggest guilt.
Admission of guilt from witness.
Interviewing Suspect- FalseConfessions
May false confess due to: tiredness, intoxication, mental state during arrest & questioning, scared, traumatic arrest.
More likely to falsey confess if: young, low IQ, psychological problems.
3 types of false confessions:
Voluntary- admits to offence by themself. Example: Sean Hodgson.
Coerced-Internalised - person convinced they've done it.
Coerced- compliant - confess even though they know they haven't done it to escape situation. Example: Guilford 4
Creating a Profile- TopDownApproach
Top down- focuses on a criminal & features within them.
Offender Profiling- based on crime scene & interviews with convicted serial offenders.
Typologies- characteristics of murderers, rapists & motivation for crime from interviews. Then match 'type' of criminal. Predicts- same criminal, violence/ liklihood of next attack.
organised - high IQ, lives with partner
disorganised - low IQ, lives alone
Power Reassurance- feel inadequate, less force, souviners
Power Assertive- aquaintance ****, rarely re-offends
Anger Retaliatory- expression of anger towards women, violent, humiliatory
Anger Excitment- Sadistic, Extreme violence,
Bottom up profiling uses features external to a person to explain their characteristics. E.g look at crime scene details (e.g blood), victim (e.g gender) and enviroment (e.g location).
Geogrpahical mental mapping- we all 'represent' our enviroment in different ways, criminals have mental maps too so we have to understand how they represent their own enviroment.
Circle theory- 'marauders' - serial offenders who travel to their crimes.
most crimes happen in a 2-5 mile radius, so draw a circle round crime clusters to help find criminals. Evidence- 75% of **** cases occur within a 2-5 mile radius of offenders living.
You can use the external info gathered to plot the liklihood of certain things coincing or happening together. - called smallest space analysis.
Creating a Profile-CaseStudyOfProfiling
Canter and the Railway Rapist- John Duffy
John Duffy- ****** evolved to murderer. Crime occurs near or by railways.
Canter used the bottom up approach (explain this) to create a profile for John Duffy.
Canters Profile included:
- has lived in the area circumscibed by the first 3 cases
- Mid - late 20's
- Criminal Record- probably under arrest at some time
- Has knowledge of railway system, semi- skilled job
How did Duffy fit the profile? - he met 13 /17 of Canters profile.
- Lived in the area mentioned
- 29 years old
- Prior criminal record
- Travelling carpenter for british rail.