Making of America- OCR, History, GCSE (9-1)

  • Created by: KSScout
  • Created on: 25-07-18 12:53

America Before The War of Independence

  • Puritans furst people to travel to America
  • Created town called Jamestown
  • England conquer east side but parts belong to France and Spain
  • People went to seek asylum for religious or political reasons
  • 1789 George Washington first American President- Landowner in Virginia
  • Britain owned 13 colonies

Boston Tea Party (1773)

  • Americans protest British opppression by throwing tea shipments into the sea
  • 1775 resentment turned into 'The War of Independence'
  • Americans didn't like being controlled by Government + King they never saw
  • 4th July 1776, Washington signed 'Declaration of Independence'
  • American army forced British to surrender in 1783
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America's Society

The Constitution

  • Rules stating how America should be run
  • All states agreed to follow it
  • Later would be amended 


  • Group of representatives from each state who passed laws

The President

  • Elected every 4 years
  • Could propose or block laws
  • Duty to serve the people by caring about matters that would affect the whole nation

The Supreme Court

  • Heard most extreme cases  + could decide if new laws fitted Constitution
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America's Society

The States

  • Could create own laws that didn't go against the Constitution
  • Well populated area + had a settled form of Government 
  • Government + Governor elected by people in that state
  • State voters could vote in national elections

The Territories

  • Areas of land without enough people or stability to become a state
  • Ruled by Territorial Governor appointed by Congress
  • Couldn't vote in national elections or send representatives to Congress, until President or Congress, allowed them to enter the union as a full state
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America's Society

White Americans

  • Claim to be USA citizens if they were free, white and of 'good character'
  • Voting rights connected to owning property
  • Women, non-citizens and slaves couldn't vote


  • Constitution accepted Indian Tribes as nations in their own right 
  • Congress could make treaties with them
  • Could vote but only if they payed taxes

Black Americans

  • 1789, majority of 694,000 African Americans lived as slaves in southern states
  • No right to vote
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Expansion: The Beginning

  • During War of Independence, native supported the British (promised not to expand their colonies into Indian lands)
  • 1783 British lost + gave newly formed USA 230 acres of Indian lands
  • Indians very angry as they hadn't lost the war but land was taken from them
  • US nicknamed the land Northwest + Southwest territory
  • Frontiersmen started setting up farms in Indian lands
  • Settlers attacked Indians in conflict over the land
  • When George Washington became President he worried about this + put 80% of Governments budget into defeating the Indians (Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794)
  • Territories became full states so US began to spread, forcing Indians to move further West into land inhabited by other tribes- more conflict

Reasons for expansion

Land, democracy, profit and trade. Government sold farmers, and land speculators, chunks of land at a time which led to massive profits benefiting from the sales.

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Expansion: Land and Trade

  • 1789 USA relied on being able to trade across Atlantic
  • Became a world economy by becoming a Pacific trader
  • Thomas Jefferson keen to open new land routes across the continent
  • 1803 US bought port of New Orleans from the French through successful negotitations
  • French negotiator sold French territory of Louisiana for $15 million 
  • Added 530 acres to USA for small price
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Expansion: Land and Democracy

  • US one of the first democratic countries
  • Thomas Jefferson 3rd President of US
  • He believed a democratic American was a 'Yeoman farmer'- man who owned piece of land and could provide for himself
  • Believed men like this had more to lose so they would be able to make more sensible decisions than those woth no property or land
  • Jefferson helped to set up Northwest and Southwest territories
  • The territories divided into six-mile square grids
  • Land was sold quickly as was then divided into 36 sections of 640 acres, each sold at $1-2 at at time
  • Most farming families earned $100 a year so few could afford the $640 to buy the land
  • Many White Americans would become 'squatters' by setting up camp in the Northwest territory and hoped to raise the funds for the land by the time the bailiff came knocking
  • Many families tried to buy the land together but this was very rare
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Expansion: Land and Profit

  • Land Speculators also interested in buying the land
  • They made huge profits by buying large amounts of cheap land from the Government and then selling it to small farmers who couldn't afford the $640 of land
  • Government gave a 10% discount to those who could pay in cash
  • In Wisconsin, the territory was worth 1/2 million acres and was bought by 68 men
  • Angered farmers who had begun to farm the land and was brought from under them
  • Had to pay large sum of money to the landowner or leave the farm and go back to the east
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Expansion: Lewis and Clark

  • Once all land was purchased, Jefferson ordered his Government to find trade oppurtunities in the West
  • Merriweather Lewis + William Clark given the task of discovering new lands
  • Set out May 1804 following the Missouri River into the Rocky Mountains and made way to unclaimed lands to the Pacific Coast
  • Travelled through lands occupied by different tribes of Indians and got on well with them
  • Misunderstanding w/ Sioux Chief (Black Buffalo), almost led to small war
  • Exploration led to explosion in fur trade
  • Traders used their maps to hunt beaver- Sold their furs to Europe
  • Encouraged other traders to move westwards, into mountains
  • Trade w/ Indians grew
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Growing Fears

  • Slavery growth caused Whites to worry about risks more
  • 1803- Successful slave revolt on French Island, St Dominque
  • Charles Deslondes (slave) made revolt in South (1811)
  • Matched through plantations and killed Whites
  • After 2 days, rounded up, arrested + killed
  • Had heads put on spikes to deter other slaves
  • North used revolts to prove slavery was outdated + caused too much violence, but anxious about giving them right to vote
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Dependancy on Slavery

  • 25% of South owned slaves
  • Depended on it to live
  • Children of slaves seperated from parents + sold
  • 1815-1820, 2646 children under 13 years old, sold in New Orleans
  • 1001 did not have a family at average age of 9
  • North bought cotton + goods produced by slaves
  • Bredding farms created from new land purchases
  • More expansion
  • 1820, 42% of cotton made up US exports
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Indian Responses to Settlement 1789-1829

  • 1783, Britsh gave US lands west of Appalachian Mountains
  • 1787, Northwest Territory opened for settlement + covered land that became Ohio, Indiana, Illinois + Michigan
  • Tribes moved West away from US Government + Settlers
  • Southwest Territory opened to settlement (1790)
  • Cotton Speculators + Slaves moved to Kentucky, Alabama, Tennessee + Louisiana
  • Challenged by Indians that lived there
  • Creeks + Senilnoles afflicted war on settlers- stop them being overrun
  • 1814- Creeks sign over 23 million acres of land as lost against army led by Tennessee slave holder, Andrew Jackson
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The 'Five Civilised Tribes'

  • Late 1820s, many Indians accepted that they would have to adapt their lives to the USA
  • Benjamin Hawkins learnt language + culture of Creeks to keep the peace (was slaveholder + plantation owner)
  • Cherokee Indians modelled US their economy + government on US system
  • Built capital city called Echota- Looked just like Washington- and created an alphabet so language could be written down
  • Also had their own newspaper
  • Choctaw, Chckasaw + Seminoles opened school and churches
  • Some owned slaves
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Indian Removal Act (1830)

  • 1830, Andrew Jackson president
  • Persuaded Congress to pass Indian Removal Act (promised Tribes money if they relocated)
  • Indians forced to move Westwards across Mississppi River
  • Indians treated like children
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