Major forms of extrusive activity

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  • Created by: Lilly
  • Created on: 20-04-14 16:45

Fissure Volcano

  • Constructive margin
  • Produces basaltic lava
  • Long, linear vent
  • Fairly flat due to low viscosity of lava- flows long distances

Eg- Laki Fissure System, Iceland

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Basic / Shield Volcano

  • Constructive margin
  • Basaltic lava
  • Gently sloping sides- low viscosity of lava means that it flows long distances

Eg- Mauna Loa, Hawaii

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Ash and Cinder Cones

  • Formed from ash, cinder and volcanic bombs ejected from crater
  • Steep sided and symetrical
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Ash / Dome Volcano

  • Destructive margin
  • Rhyolitic/ andesitic lava
  • Steep sided- high viscosity of lava- flows short distances
  • Convex cones

Eg- Puy de Dome, France

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Composite Cone

  • Constructive margin
  • Classic pyramid shape
  • Layers of ash/ lava
  • Andesitic lava
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Calderas

  • Destructive margin
  • Andesitic / rhyolitic lava
  • Central part of volcano has collapsed due to build up of gases, become so extreme resulting in huge explosion.
  • Very wide, circular crater, can be flooded by the sea.

Eg. Krakatoa, Indonesia.

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