Main Stages of First Civil War

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Cessation Treaty

  • Ormond, commander of King's forces in Ireland, successfully concluded 1 year cease fire in September 1643 with Irish Confedarates- union of Gaelic Irish & Old English
  • Looked as Charles siding with Catholic
  • Frightened people because looked as C. was edging increasingly towards Catholicism & Absolutism
  • Over next 9 months around 22,000 troops made way from Ireland to Scotland, England & Wales
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Solemn League & Covenant

  • September 1643- parliament signed Solemn League and Covenant with Scots Covenanters
  • Agreed to impose 'reformation of religion' in England and Ireland 'according to the word of God', a term which caused many problems between parliament & Scots
  • In return, Scots would provide army of 21,500 men to fight 4 parliament
  • Parliament was to pay £30,000 per month to offset costs of Scottish army
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