One way to show the validity of any observation or experiment is to repeat it:
- If the outcome is the same it affirms the truth of the original results
- especially if the observations have been made by another person
To achieve such replication it is important for scientists to record their methods carefully so the same procedures are followed.
Scientists strive to demonstrate casual relationships enabling them to predict and control our world;
- The experimental method is the only way to do this
- Vary one thing (the IV) and observe its effects of the DV
- In order for this to be a 'fair test' all other conditions must be kept the same
Scientists strive to be objective in their observations and measurements, i.e. their expectations should not affect what they record.
Information is gained through direct observations or experiment, rather than reason or argument.
One aim of science is to record facts. An additional aim is to use those facts to construct theories that help us understand and predict the natural phenomena around us.
A theory is a collection of general princibles that explain observations and facts.