- they need to target a specific audience.
- they are heavily subsidized by advertising.
- many magazines are aimed at similar audience because that 'demographic' is lucrative for advertisers. E.g. teen magazines- Bliss, More, Cosmogirl.
- titles within a certain sector of the market may be very similar, but each will have a unique selling point.
- kerrang is unique for its 'brand credibility'
- the magazine industry operates in a 'volatile market'.
- Kerrang has changed 'ownership' 3 times in 28 years.
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- originally launched in 1981 as a heavy metal supplement to United Newspapers 'sounds'.
- kerrang was picked up by EMAP in 1991.
- kerrang was sold to Bauer along with all other EMAP titles in February 2008.
- kerrang has a specific 'niche' market.
- Paul Brannigan is the editor of kerrang.
- managed by one senior 'editorial director' Stuart Williams.
- the editorial director is there to make sure that kerrang doesn't apply to the same target audience as another magazine.
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Synergy and Convergence
- it was one of the first tiltes to exploit cross media 'convergence' in targeting a specific audience.
- decided to take things further by developing 'print-based' music titles as 'multi-platform brands'.
- EMAP's first venture into the synergized world was with Kerrang radio station.
- had the core 'brand values' of the magazine.
- was a big success so followed this up in 2001 with Kerrang tv.
- the 'omnipotence of the brand' across several 'media platforms' lead to kerrang selling around 80,000 copies a week from 2000-2007
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- digital photography enables art directors to work on the layout as soon as a photo shoot is over.
- uses adobe in design.
- use acrobat, allowing high resolution pdfs to be send directly to printers.
- over the counter transactions account for 95% of sales.
- for 2008/2009 sales were down nearly 30% because of music retailers like HMV.
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- means anything the audeince generates.
- retail price = £2.20.
- the magazine has lost out to the 'proliferation' of 'social networking' sites' like Facebook and MySpace.
- Facebook and MySpace are able to give information the music world either from bands or fans...whereas the magazine used to be the 'gatekeeper'.
- encouraged readers to be interactive in the producation of the magazine, e.g. readers can pick who they want on the front cover.
- magazine includes posters which is a key selling point.
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- the success of kerrang is due to the fact that it has embraced the 'proliferation' of new digital 'hardware'.
- uses internet, digital tv and radio to extend the range of the brand.
- recent changes to the way in which people 'listen to music' is threatening to erode the 'financial viability' of the magazine.
- the proliferation of mp3's, the iPod and online music players like Spotify, mean that the music industry has come to rely less upon the sales of recorded music to make a profit.
- it could be said that the online version of the magazine has more to offer the target audience than it print based namesake.
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- Kerrangs success in targeting a 'specific audience' can be attributed to the way in which it has embraced the 'convergence of technology'.
- those magazines that have survived have developed 'multi-platform brands'.
- some magazines have a 'digital after life'. Smash hits lives on as a radio station and tv channel.
- the 'convergence of technologies' has meant the end for some titles, the music press could be said to be the 'forefront of the digital revolution'.
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Targeting an Audience
- while it is possible to 'profile the audience' in terms of age, race, sex and class, for a 'passion title' it is important to have a 'core ideology' about the topic with which the reader can identify.
- kerrangs written style is very celebratory, the magazine tends not to be critical of bands but ignores what it does not like.
- the 'dark house style' reflects the 'sub-cultural style' of the metal and hard-core music scenes.
- magazines 'core audience' is predominantly white and more middle class.
- 55/45 male/female readership split.
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