Macmillan 1957 - 63

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Macmillan - Politics

The Vassall Affair

  • In 1963 the Government was obiged to appoint an official investigation into the case of JV, a civil servant, who in 1962 was caugh spying for the Soviet Union. It was suggested that senior members within the government had covered up for Vassall, although the report found no such findings, the credibility of the government had been damaged.

The John Profumo Affair

  • John Profumo, the minister of war was found to be having sexual relations with Christine Keeler, a vice girl, who was also have sexual relations with a member from the Soviet Embassy. It was the Daily Express that cleverly exposed the affair, placing John Profumo's resignation by the photo of Christine Keeler on the front page of the Newspaper, avoiding the illegal action of breaking the Libel Law.Macmillan's image suffered as JP had lied to the HOC, and Macmillan had believed him.

Night of the Long knives 1962

  • Purge of his cabinet intended to rejuvenate the Cabinet, actually weaked. Sacked 1/3 of Cabinet including COE Lloyd
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Macmillan - Economy

  • Stop go policies
  • Chancellor Thorney Croft wanted to implement sharp measures to raise bank rate to 5.7% and make 150million spending cuts, Macmillan wanted to only make 100m. COE resigned
  • 1959 budget cuts £370m off income tax
  • 1955-60 2.9% increase in real wages
  • BOP 1964 = -£800m
  • In 1961 their were worries about an economy over heating, this forced the government to introduce a 'pay pause' to hold wage inflation and asked for an IMF loan. 
  • In February 1962 - set up National Economic Development Council in an attempt to get economic co-operation between government and trade unions, attempted to address Britain's relative economic decline.
  • 1951 - 1964  UK growth GDP = 2.3%, Italy and GR abover 5%
  • 1957 - 64 income tax reduced by 5times from 9s 6d to 7s 9d in the pound
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Macmillan - Social

  • 1957 Homocide Act in 1957 effectively ended the death penalty, except for certain rare categories. 
  • 1959 Obscene publicatons Act which said 'adult literature that was in the interest of science, literature, art or learning' should be exempt from cencorship. October 1960, Lady Chatterly's lover had explicit sexual content. (Not until 1974 that single women were allowed the pill), effect still profound = Of the women born in 1941, 94% were married by the age of 35, whereas only 60% of women born in 1973 had married by that age
  • 1960 production of the pill began, by 1961 it became available.
  • 1962 Immigration Act limited the immigration of non white immigrants from former colonial territories denounced as racist, by the Labour Party, introduced entry voucher scheme.
  • CND
  • Education - The Robins report is commissioned to look into Br's higher education, it was a concern that Britain was lagging behind in it's continental members . The report illustrated concerns for the need of more scienctific courses in British Universities, and was also alarmed that only 4% of the relevant age attended university. By 1968, 30 polytechnics and 56 univ's. However, boys still2x than girls. 
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Macmillan - Social (2)

  • Violent racial riots erupted in 1958 in Notting Hill, Nottingham and Brixton in London. The police arrested 177 people, and in Notting Hill alone a mob of 600 white men attempted to batter down the property of black members of the area.
  • In 1959 Kelso Cochrane from Notting Hill was stabbed to death by a gange of 6 youths in a racial attack.
  • 1962 survey revealed that 90% of the population supported legislation to curb the level of immigration. 
  • 1957 - rent Act put 6million properties onto the market. By 1964 44% people owned their home and 91% owned a tv.
  • Car ownership 1955 = c.3.6million, 1965 c.9.1m
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Macmillan - International

  • In 1957, Macmillan met with Eisenhower at Bermuda and laid the foundations 'for restored cooperation over Middle Eastern affairs' (Suez Crisis)
  • Major Colonies lost in Cyprus 1960, Malaya in 1957, Britian even stopped celebrating Empire day in 1958. 
  • Unsuccessful action in Kenya, where ther were violent rebellions by the Mau Mau, and in Nyasalands where 51 black protestors were killes contined to show Britain's waning strength.
  • 1960 Wind of Change speech 
  • Nonetheless, in 1964 Britain still held the Commonwealth and important colonies such as Honk Kong. 
  • Failure of Britain's Blue Streak Programme due to financial constraints, had to negotiate deal with USA - Britain receieved weapons such as Polaris and in return for the US being able to base their polaris submarines at the Holy Loch in Sctoland which caused public outcry and CND protests. 
  • 1959 EFTA 
  • 1945 empire = 800m 1964 = 15m
  • 1961 government now announced intentnions to join the EEC
  • 1963 EEC application vetoed
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