Luther's Tower Experience 1516

Whilst reading the Bible, Luther was struck by the phase 'The righteous shall life by faith' leading to Sola Fide (Justification by faith alone)

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The 95 Thesis 1517

The 95 thesis centres on many practices within the Catholic Church reguarding baptism and absolutism. They reject the validity of indulgences (punishment for sins that have been forgiven.) They are also cynical of indulgences being sold. Luther pinned these on the Church at Wittenberg to increase his publication- he wanted to become well known as an opponant to the catholic faith

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Diet of Augsburg 1518

Luther was summond to Augsburg and threatened with punishment from Cardinal Cajetan. Luther stood firm and refused to move his position, despite the idea that the Pope was the only one allowed to interpret the bible.

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Exsurge Domine 1520

Pope Leo excommuniacated Luther in his papal bull 'exsurge domine' (Arise, O Lord) which required the citizens of the Empire to burn Luther's writings and refuse to provide Luther and his supporters with food or shelter- anyone failing to do so would be imprisioned.

Frederick of Saxony refused to carry out the the papl bull and persuaded Charles that Luther should have the chance to defend himself at the Diet of Worms

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Luther's main pamphlets 1520

'The Address of the Christian Nobility'- defined for the first time the signature doctrines of the priesthood of all believers and the two kingdoms

'On the Babylonish Captivity of the Church'-   Luther examines the 7 sacraments of the Catholic Church in the light of his interpretation of the Bible. With regard to the Eucharist, he advocates restoring the cup to the laity, dismisses the Catholic doctrine of Transubstantiation but affirms the real presence of the body and blood of Christ in the Eucharist, and rejects the teaching that the Mass is a sacrifice offered to God.

'Concerning the Christan liberty'- developed the concept that as fully forgiven children of God, Christians are no longer compelled to keep God's law; however, they freely and willingly serve God and their neighbors. Luther also further develops the concept of justification by faith alone. In the treatise, Luther stated, "A Christian is a perfectly free lord of all, subject to none. A Christian is a perfectly dutiful servant of all, subject to all."

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Diet/ Edict of Worms

Luther was outlawed and his works banned.  The terms of the papal bull were carried out- citizens had to burn Luther's writings  Charles pledged to eradicate herey in the HRE.

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Luther's 'imprisionment' 1521

Luther was kidnapped by Fredeerick of Saxony (however 'kidnapped' should be used as a loose term.) Here he was place in Wartberg castle which enabled him to translate the bible from Latin into the Vernacular, which would cause it to appeal to far more citizens

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The Knights War 1522

The Knight's War was a revolt by a number of Protestant and religious humanist German knights, led by Franz von Sickingen againsy the Roman catholic church and the HRE. It was short lived- however inspired the Peasants War

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The Peasants War 1524-25

Occured due to the peasants wanting more social justice- believed they could due to the previous Knights War. Used 'sola fide' as a backing point to defend and justify their actions.

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First Diet of Speyer 1526

Charles was absent leading the prices divided over te religious question. Edict of Worms was not enforced. Recess of Speyer= Princes could make up their own mind about their religion

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Second Diet of Speyer 1529

An attempt to enforce the Edict of Worms as the threat of Luther was increasinly growing. However, 6 Lutheran princes protested against the catholic church due to the belief that the Edict should be enforced.

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The Large and Small Catechisms 1529

Typifies the emphasis which the churches of theAugsburg confession placed on the importance of knowledge and understanding of the articles of the Christian faith. Primarily intended as instruction to teachers, especially to parents, the Catechism consists of a series of exhortations on the importance of each topic of the Catechism. It is meant for those who have the capacity to understand, and is not meant to be memorized but to be repeatedly reviewed so that the Small Catechism could be taught with understanding. For example, the author stipulates in the preface

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Diet of Augsburg (2)

Charles returned to Germany for this Diet. he wanted to settle the Ottoman threat so was keen to sort out Luther. However, the Catholic Majority were not willing to use force against the Protestants. Diet was left without satisfactory resolution. It returned to the principles of the Edict of Worms- extremely unsatisfactory to the protestants

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Schmalkaldic League 1531

Defensive alliance of Lutheran princes within the Holy Roman Empire during the mid-16th century. Although originally started for religious motives soon after the start of the Protestant Reformation, its members eventually intended for the League to replace the Holy Roman Empire as their source of political allegiance.

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Diet of Regensburg 1541

A conference held at Regensburg, during the Protestant Reformation, which marks the culmination of attempts to restore religious unity in the Holy Roman Empire by means of theological debate.

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Peace of Crepy 1544

Francis agreed to cooperaate over the calling of a General Council and promised not to form an alliance with the German Protestants. The pope was generous with roops and money leaving Charles in an unusually strong position.

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Battle of Muhlberg 1547

The Catholic princes of the Holy Roman Empire led by the Charles V defeated the Lutheran Schmalkaldic League of Protestant princes under the command of the Elector of Saxony

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Interim of Augsburg 1548

Charles' attempt to impose a religious settlement on the Empire which offered very small concessions to Protestants but was essentially a restatement of Catholic Doctrine.

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Siege of Metz 1553

Charles V of Spain made the military attempt to forcibly regain the overlordship over Metz. However, his troops were defeated by the French army who defended Metz under the command of Francis, Duke of Guise. As a result, Metz remained in French hands.

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Diet/ Peace of Ausgburg 1555

It was decided that each prince would choose his own religion and therefore the faith of his subjects. There should be no missionaries or protection of co-relgionists in other territories. Charles refused to attend due to the religious issue. Charles abdicates.

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