1505: Lutheran becomes an Augustinian monk at Erfurt. 1511: Luther appointed lecturer in Biblical theology at Wittenberg University.
1515: Luther is lecturing on St Paul's Letters to the Romans and clearly struck by the concept thatone is saved by 'faith alone'.
1517: Luther pins his 95 Theses against indulgences on the door of Wittenberg Cathedral as an invitation to debate to the issue of the 'efficacy of good works'.
1518: According to Sylvester Prierias Luther's condemnation of indulgences is heretical. Luther disputes with Cardinal Cajetan at Augsburg. Luther admits that a pope may be in error.
1519: Luther debates with Eck (another Dominican) at Leipzig University. Luther now admits that a General Council of the Church can err if it acts contrary to Scripture, Death of Maximilian. Charles V elected Holy Roman Emperor.
1520: In one year alone Luther publishes 24 books including the ground breaking: 'On The Liberty Of A Christian Man', 'An Appeal To The Christian Nobility Of The German Nation' and 'On The Babylonish Captivity Of The Church'. Luther provisionally excommunicated by LEO X in the bull Exsurge Domine (he has six months to recant his views and will then be declared a heretic).
1521: Luther completely excommunicated by the Bull Decet Romanum. At Diet of Worms Luther defends his beliefs in front of the Emperor, 'here I stand. I can do no other. God help me! Amen!" His ideas are condemned by Edict of Worms. Luther is declared an outlaw.1521 - 1522: Luther imprisoned on the orders of Frederick the Wise in the Wartburg. Luther'sGerman translation of the New Testament published.
1522: Charles V leaves Germany. He will not return until 1530. Ferdinand appointed Charles' Regent in Germany. Luther returns to Wittenberg (which is in the grip of radical reformation) and urges cautious reform.
1523: Revolt of the imperial knights.
1525: Peasants Rising: Luther publishes' Against The Murdering Thieving Hordes Of Peasants'.Princes see him as a potential ally whose ideas will not encourage anarchy but in fact will allow them to control the church in their lands. Luther marries an ex-nun Katherine von Bora.
1525: Albert of Hohenzollern, Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, converts andtakes over theland of the Order. Charles V defeats Francis I at the Battle of PAVIA.
1526: Treaty of Madrid between Francis and Charles, but Francis iinmediately abandons it forming the League of Cognac against Charles. FirstDiet of Speyer: German Princes and cities refuse to enforce the Edict of Worms. Battle of Mohacs. Death of Louis II of Hungary. Ottoman advance towards Austria a pressing concern. Conversion of influential Philip of Hesse to Lutheranism.
1527: Conversions of John Frederick of Saxony (Frederick the Wise's successor) and the Count of Mansfeld.
1529: Luther and Zwingli fail to reach a common understanding on the Eucharist at Marburg.
Second Diet of Speyer. Ferdinand reimposes Edict of Worms. In response Lutheran Cities andPrinces issue their Protestation and refuse to comply. Francis I defeated at Landriano. Ottoman
Turks turned back from Vienna.
1530: Habsburg / Valois peace established atCambrai. Charles crowned Emperor by the Pope at Bologna. Charles attends Diet of Augsburg. After much discussion the Edict of Worms reimposed. Lutheran Cities and Princes establish the Schrnalkaldic League for purposes of selfdefence.
1531: Ferdinand appointed King of the Romans.
1532: Religious Peace of Nuremberg, Charles grants toleration to Lutheranism in return for military help against the Turks. Ottoman Army repulsed from Austria at Guns.
1532 - 1541: Charles absent from Germany.
1534: Schmalkaldic League uses its military muscle to restore Duke Ulrich to the large Duchy of Wurttemberg.
1535: Charles captures Tunis from the Barbary Corsairs, conversion of the Elector of Brandenburg
1536: Wittenberg Concord: South German towns adhere to Lutheranism.
1536-1538: War with the Valois.
1539: Peace of Frankfurt, Lutheranism offered further toleration, conversion of Ducal Saxony, bigamy of Philip of Hesse.
1541: Diet of Regensburg, failure to bring Catholics and Lutherans together.
1542 -1544: War with the Valois
1544: Peace ofCrepy with the Valois, conversion of Elector Frederick II of the Palatinate (theLutherans now have a majority amongst the seven Electors!)
1545: Council of Trent convened: confirms the impossibility of bridging divisions betweenCatholicism and Lutheranism.
1546: Death of Luther, Maurice of Saxony abandons his Protestant allies and joins Charles V.
1547: Charles V achieves a crushing victory over the Schrnalkaldic League at the Battle of Muhlberg, imprisonment of John Frederick of Saxony and Philip of Hesse.
1547 - 1548: Diet of Augsburg, Charles tries to solve religious divisions by the imposition of the unpopular Interim. Charles' plans for an Imperial League also unpopular, Ongoing Brothers' Quarrel between Charles and Frederick.
1551: Maurice of Saxony abandons the siege of Magdeburg and rejoins the Lutheran cause,
establishment of the League ofTorgau indefence of German liberties.
1552: Treaty of Chambord, Henry II agrees to protect German liberties by providing military support to the League of Torgau, French occupy Metz, Toul and Verdun. Charles forced to flee from Innsbruck by Maurice's army. Charles fail to raise the siege of Metz, leaves Germany and never returns. Treaty of Pas~au restores peace to the Empire
1555: Diet of Augsburg, existence ofLutheranism formally recognised (Cuius Regio: EiusReligio), abdication of Charles V.
1558: Death of Charles V