Was Geneva a Theocratic state by 1564?
ANSWER: To a great extent by 1564 however it was not an easy or short journey.
3 things are key for theocracy: Theocracy = State run by faith
Collaboration Discipline Education
- 1541 The Ecclesiastical Ordinances were a step on the road to Calvinism (Collaboration)
- 1553 M. Servetus was a key example of theocratic discipline by execution (Discipline)
- 1559 Genevan Academy (Education)
Paragraph 1: Geneva fulfilled E. Ordinances when state requested theocracy
Paragraph 2: Dufour argues it was an autocratic not theocratic state - Geneva "brutal" and violent, however the state ignoring Calvin's opinion on the execution of Servetus infers otherwise. (Give detail on Servetus leading to A. Perrin fleeing...)
Paragraph 3/ Conclusion: Academy enforce discipline "most perfect school of Christ" - J.Knox
How did Calvin overcome opposition?
ANSWER: By fulfilling Collaboration in 1553.
- 1553 - The execution of Servetus (2 sentences maximum)
- Briefly: Ami Perrin's downfall - his wealth funding the Academy.
(+ downfall of all Libertines),
Calvin brought perseverance/ a legal mind/ discipline
- Previous attempts at collaboration show the 1540s is a weight that proves 1553 (persevered for ten years proving his worth through repeated smaller victories).
Even an international feeling that this was "the most perfect school of Christ" - J.Knox.
Establishing Calvinism in Europe
ANSWER: To an extent however it only became established in Northern Europe.
Introduction: (ANSWER) + France being the major success.
Paragraph 1: Where was it established and why?
Geneva Scotland France Netherlands
- Leader = John Knox
- Knox wanted Protestantism but Catholics were unsure, Calvinism = compromise
- By 1559 1/2 of the nobility accepted Calvin.
- 1559 there were 120 missions (32 were to France)
- Up to 10% of the population converted
Paragraph 2: Where wasn't it established and why?
- Southern Europe, Catholicism = strong with the Pope in Italy and HRE Charles in Spain
Conclusion: Geneva's printing press = a major role in establishing success.
Why was Calvin expelled?
ANSWER: The council were too slow to enforce discipline; immature and unsophisticated.
~However his theology was valid and respected - hence Calvin's return in the 1540s.
The council chose to side with the Pro-Berne faction whilst collaboration was still in its infancy.
Contributing Factors -
- Calvin was a foreign influence attempting to enforce discipline
- Geneva having expelled priest (1527) was used to chaos not strict discipline
- Failed attempt at co-operation when few attended appointments to sign the
"Articles of the Organisation of the the Church and its worship in Geneva"
- A public statement of faith
Calvin needed strong state enforcement not just "support".
Explain the work of the Consistory
A court to supervise beliefs and morals.
Consisted of 4 officers:
Pastors - to teach, preach and enforce sacraments
Doctors - to instruct on true doctrine
Deacons - help the sick and needy
Lay Elders - 12 worthy citizen appointed to reugulate every person's conduct
- Gave Calvin strong social control
- Introduced the Grabeau
- Company of Pastors would meet every 3 months for "voluntary" humiation,
- Or "mutual criticism" as Lotherington calls it.
Effective in making the pastors more cautious/ attentive in their work and life in general.
The consistory and grabeau "gave Calvinism an institutional strength which Lutheranism lacked" (Lotherington)
His beliefs were accepted because they reinstated some core Christian beliefs
- e.g. Incarnation and Christ's atoning sacrifice
1536 Institutes of the Christian Religion ~ Foundation of Calvinism.
- God is Just
- Both relied on "Sola Fide"
Calvin opposed Catholic doctrine enforcing salvation by faith alone - hence a relief
~ made heaven accessable to the poor
- Place of Christ (a just sacrifice of love by God)
- 'Invisible Church' concept establishes true faith
- Rejected Sacraments
The Institutes established a moral code contributing greatly toward the E. Ordinances
- and the eventual construction of the Academy.
Key Point: Implementing his ideas was an extremely lengthy process.
Importance of Calvin
- His strict education and discipline was essential to relief and hope from Geneva's turmoil.
- No political parties gained enough influence to enforce discipline.
- Had to convince extreme numbers.
- Few understood reform - terrified of eternal damnation.
- Hated being disciplined by a foreigner
~ No one wanted his as "moral policeman of Geneva" (Mullett)
Farel had already convinced Geneva to abandon papal ways therefore Farel was the reformer not Calvin
- Little Council (Geneva) = getting increasingly furious not knowing who's in charge.
- 1555 downfall of the Libertines (Perrin, Ameaux, Gruet)
- 1559 Academy founded (shows Calvinism as a clear victory of his ideas)
1559: Ideas, discipline, theology, order, law and faith - "all ready to be transported"