Luther

Luther

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1517

NINETY FIVE THESES 1517

they were in response to indulgences - supposedly pinned onto the door of the Castle Church in Wittenburg


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1518

HEARING WITH CAJETAN IN AUGSBURG (rather than papally preferred venue of Rome) 1518

with the succession of the Holy Roman Emperor at discussion, Frederick the Wise of Saxony gains Luther a hearing with Cardinal Cajetan

Cajetans task was to make Luther aware of the grave errors in his beliefs

It was not successful for the papacy, as Luther refused to recant. Luther claimed that if his views were proven wrong from scriptures THEN he would stop. 

Catholic forces obviously saw Luther as a threat from the 95 Theses, but thought that his meeting with Cajetan would resolve everything - they were not expecting his stubborn nature.

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1519

LEIPZIG DISPUTATION WITH ECK 1519

Luther is compared to a heretic from the century before, named Jan Hus, who was burned to death

Eck was a theologian, and they met to debate the issue of papal primacy and the route to salvation 

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1520

Exurge Domine 1520

Leo X issued the bull

It gave Luuther 60 days to recant, or face excommunication

Luther's 3 great works are published 1520

they defined his doctrine and beliefs

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1521

Luther was excommunicated by the bull, 1521 after failing to recant

He burned the bull, and started to lay down his teachings on paper

Diet of Worms 1521

In April, Luther was summoned before Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

Due to pressure placed upon Charles by the German princes, he allowed Luther to have a final hearing. Charles relied upon the votes of the Seven Electors of the H.R.E, and didn't want to go against their pushes in case of civil unrest. (The Empire itself was very delocalised, and the real political power was with the princes.) 

Luther hides in Watburg Castle and translates the New Testament. May 25th, the Edict of Worms declared Luther to be an obstinate heretic and banned the reading or possession of his writings. Karlstadt takes over Wittenburg.



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1522

Karlstadt 1522

Took control in Wittenburg, was a radical. Carried out attacks of Catholic statues and images. 

When Luther returns, he restores order with his Invocavit sermons. 

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1525

Luther marries 1525

he marries a nun, who he had helped escape a convent two years before

Peasants Revolt erupts in southern Germany 1525

Luther condemns the disorder in his 'Against the Murdering, Theiving Hordes of the Peasants' 

Split with Erasmus 1525

After Luther writes 'De Servo Arbitro'

It became clear that Erasmus did not want to reform Catholicism, he just wanted to restore the corrupt aspects of it

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1526

Luther's German Mass completed 1526

Provided weekday services and doctrinal instruction

Formation of the League of Torgau 1526

Protestant princes against the terms of the Edict of Worms

First Diet of Speyer 1526

was a temporary suspension of the Edict of Worms 

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1529

Many large and small catechisms published in German 1529

allows the common man to access Lutheran doctrine

Second Diet of Speyer 1529

Condemned the results of the first, and prohibited further reformation

Marburg Colloquy with Zwingli 1529

results in failure to unite Protestantism, due to disagreement over the Eucharist. A split is formed. 

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1530

Diet and Confession of Augsburg 1530

The situation in the rest of Europe seemed to be favouring Charles V, putting him in a strong position. Also, due to the split in Protestantism the prior year, Luther was weaker.

Charles' aim was to enlist German aid for the ongoing struggle against the Ottoman Turks, and to also restore unity within the Church. Furthermore, he also wanted approval from the princes to elect Ferdinand as heir to the imperial throne. His aim was to reach a compromise, therefore. There was little chance of reaching a compromise, though. 

Melanchton prepared the Lutheran statement of belief, known as the confession of Augsburg. It was an attempt to distinguish Lutheranism from other more radical sects. Melancthon purposefully avoided issues such as purgatory and transubstantiation, in the hope of reaching a compromise with the Catholic theologians led by Albert of Mainz. He focused instead on doctrinal issues such as communion and clerical marraige. 

No success; hardline Catholics such as Campeggio focused on the differences. The result however meant that Luther now had wa document that defined his doctrinal position.

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1530

The Schmalkaldic League (1530-1543)

Charles' aggressive decree after Augsburg, combined with the re-affirmation of the Edict of Worms caused a response from the Lutheran princes. In 1531, the alliance was officially formed, led by Philip of Hesse. 

They represented the most formal and organised opposition to imperial power up to this point. They removed themselves from all imperial institutions. 

For the first time, princes were operating outside the recognised political structure of the Empire; the theory that the Emperor could not be opposed by force was being challenged. 

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1536

Wittenberg Concord (agreement on tran/substantiation) overseen by Bucer 1536

brings compromise between north and south Germany over the Eucharist.

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1537

Schmalkalden Articles 1537

offer and overview of Lutheran theology and justify resistance to the emperor. 

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1541

Colloquy of Regensburg 1541

Pope Paul III sent Contarini to create a middle ground between Lutheranism and Catholicism. They agreed over the first five articles but agreement was unclear for the rest. Luther wasn't present, Melanchthon was in charge and had a soft approach. 


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1545

Council of Trent opens 1545

For Charles, 1530's were tough and he couldn't fully focus on Lutheranism, by 1545 he knew that seeking compromise was not realistic or possible. He chose to tackle the religious dispute by creating a General Council of the Church. The Council opened in the town of Trent in 1545.

The council issued condemnations on what it defined as Protestant heresies and defined Church teachings in the areas of Scripture and Tradition, Original Sin, Justification, Sacraments, the Eucharist in Holy Mass and the veneration of saints. The Council was basically answering Protestant disputes.

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1546

Diet of Regensburg 1546

In April Charles V travelled to Regensburg to attend one final religious colloquy. Unlike in 1541, there was little theological debate or attempt to regain religious unity. 

Charles' main priority was to finalize his alliance with Maurice of Saxony and prepare a defensive pact with Bavaria in readiness for war. 

Luther dies

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1547

Victory for Imperial forces against League of Schmalkalden 1547

at the battle of Muhlberg, Maurice of Saxony went onto his side due to bribary and promises of power. The result was a crushing victory for Charles V. The Elector of Saxony (Frederick) was captured and his lands, as promised, were given to Maurice. 

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1552

Princely revolt

Led by Maurice of Saxony

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1555

The Peace of Augsburg

Charles' attempt to restore Catholcism in the Empire was only successful in those areas where his army was. Also, the Habsburg family in Spain were showing signs of strain as Charles looked to promote his son Philip to the imperial throne, at the expense of Ferdinand. Was a treaty between the Schmalkaldic League and Charles. 

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